Lecture 32 - Chordates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 32 - Chordates Deck (39):
1

4 major physical characteristics of chordates

1. notochord
2. dorsal hollow nerve chord
3. pharyngeal slits
4. post-anal tail

2

Subphylum Cephalochordata

(lancelets)

3

Subphylum Cephalochordata (characteristic/env./nutr.)

-basal chordates
-environment: marine
-nutrition: suspension feeders

4

Subphylum Urochordata

tunicate, sea squirts

5

Subphylum Urochordata (env./nutr.)

environment: marine
nutrition: suspension feeders

6

2 characcteristics of Subphylum Urochordata

1. two siphons, adult animals without backbones
2. “tadpole” larva

7

What are the Peter Pan of tunicates?

Larvaceans, they never grow up

8

What are pelagic tunicates? importance?

-salps
-important component of some pelagic ecosystems

9

Subphylum Myxini

hagfish

10

Subphylum Myxini (env./nutr.)

environment: aquatic
nutrition: scavengers

11

3 characteristics of Myxini

1.
2.
3.

12

Subphylum Petromyzontida

lampreys

13

Subphylum Petromyzontida (env./nutr.)

environment: aquatic
nutrition: parasitic (ecoparasite)
-uses rasping tongue to penetrate skin of prey + inject blood/other tissues

14

3 characteristics of Subphylum Petromyzontida

1. jawless
2. vertebrates
3. cephalization

15

Subphylum Chondrichtyes

sharks + rays

16

Subphylum Chondrichtyes (env./nutr.)

environment: aquatic
nutrition: carnivores + filter feeders
-spiral valve increases SA

17

Subphylum Chondrichtyes (body)

haw + paired fins + cartilage endoskeleton

18

Subphylum Chondrichtyes (reproducition)

internal fertilization

19

Subphylum Chondrichtyes (3 major senses)

1. sharp vision
2. olfaction
3. lateral line detects low freq. vibrations

20

What are rays?

-Flattened bottom dwellers
-related to sharks

21

Subphylum Actinoptergii

ray-finned fishes

22

Subphylum Actinoptergii (class)

Osteichthyes (bony fish)

23

Subphylum Actinoptergii (body, 4)

1. ossified endoskeleton
2. maneuverable swimmers
3. swim bladder
4. operculum (gill-breathers)

24

Subphylum Actinoptergii (reproduction)

variable

25

Subphylum Actinoptergii (senses)

lateral line

26

Why are Subphylum Actinoptergii neutrally bouyant?

swim blatter

27

Subphylum Actinistia

oelacanth

28

Subphylum Actinistia (body/evolution)

Body: muscular pectoral + pelvic fins, bony skeleton
Evolution: lobe fins evolve into limbs + feet

29

Subphylum Dipnoi

lungfish

30

Subphylum Dipnoi (environment, body, evolution)

Environment: freshwater
Body: have lungs + gills
Evolution: sister group of tetrapods

31

_____ were first tetrapods to spend substantial time on land

amphibians

32

What is Synapomorphy?

tetrapod limb

33

3 characteristics of tetrapod limb?

1. Attached to body, one long bone (femur, humerus)
2. Two distal long bones (tibia, fibulua; ulna, radius)
3. Group of smaller bones forming foot or hand

34

Subphylum Amphibia

frogs, salamanders etc.

35

Subphylum Amphibia (environment)

water (larvae), land (adults

36

Subphylum Amphibia (reproduction)

external fertilization

37

Subphylum Amphibia (body)

-4 limbs (descended from modified fins),
-moist skin (gas exchange)

38

Subphylum Amphibia (evolution)

aquatic-terrestrial transition happened during carboniferous

39

Subphylum Amphibia (reason's for evolution)

1. Moist environment
2. Abundant food
3. Little competition