Lecture 13 - Molecular Systematics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Molecular Systematics Deck (23):
1

Molecular trees can resolve both _____ and _____ divergence

ancient, recent

2

How can molecular trees resolve diverge?

by using molecules that evolve at different rates

3

What resolves deep divergences?

conserved sequences

4

What is an example of a conserved sequence?

ribosomal RNA

5

What is a benefit of using additional genes?

gives a more complicated view

6

What resolves more recent divergence?

mitochondrial DNA

7

What are the two types of homologous genes that molecular phylogenies rely on?

1. orthologous
2. paralogous

8

What is orthologous?

found in different species as a result of speciation (product of speciation)

9

What is paralogous?

found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication (within a species)

10

How do molecular phylogenies track evolutionary time?

if we assume a molecular clock

11

What is a molecular clock?

-using phylogenies to estimate evolutionary time of divergence
-molecular yardstick

12

What is the basis of the molecular clock?

-yardstick for measuring absolute time of an evolutionary change
-based on observation that some genome regions appear to evolve at constant rates

13

What is the Neutral Theory?

-states that much evolutionary change in genes/proteins has no effect on fitness
-therefore not influence by Darwinian selection
-states that rate of molecular change in genes/proteins should be regular like clock

14

Who was Motoo Kimura?

developed the Neutral Theory

15

What are 3 flaws to molecular clocks?

1. imprecise
2. rates vary among genes and among species
3. clock rates need to be calibrated with independent data

16

What are 5 practical applications of phylogenetics?

1. The origin of HIV
2. Source of SARS
3. MERS source + transmission
4. Source of 2009 H1N1 outbreak
5. Zika Virus

17

_____ combined with _____ suggests that HIV-1 M originated in the 1930s

phylogeny, molecular clock analysis

18

What was evidence that the 6 medics accused of infecting infants with HIV were innocent?

-many children co-infected with hepatitis (suggests dirty needles)
-at least one child infected with HIV after medics were arrested
-strongest evidence from phylogeny

19

What does phylogeny suggest about SARS?

supports hypothesis that virus originated in bats

20

What was the source of MERS? Why?

-bats
-bats have higher metabolic rate that may keep viruses at bay

21

Where did swine flu derive from"

avian, swine, and human strains all circulating in pigs

22

What does molecular clock analysis suggest about the 2009 outbreak?

-phylogeny proved it was recombinant virus of viral DNA
-ancestors of the 2009 outbreak have been ciruculating undetected for between 9 and 17 years

23

Did the world cup fans introduce Zika to Brazil?

no, phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show single introduction to Americas in 2013