Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Prokaryotes 2 (SI) Deck (45):
What are the 4 proteobacteria subgroups of gram-negative bacteria?
What is a result of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes?
-obscures the root of the tree of life
What are the 3 domains of life?
Which domains have a nuclear envelop?
Which domains have membrane organelles
Which domains have peptidoglycan in cell wall
Which domains have unbranched hydrocarbons?
Which domains have some branched hydrocarbons?
Which domains have one kind of RNA polymerase?
Which domains have several kinds of RNA polymerase?
What kind of initiator for amino acid for protein synthesis do each have?
What are 2 qualities of alpha?
1. many associate with eukaryotic hosts
-mitochondria evolved from aerobic alphaproteobacteria
What are 2 examples of alpha?
1. Rhizobium (forms root nodules in legumes, fixes N2)
2. Agrobacterium (produce tumors, used in genetic engineering
What is a quality of beta?
holds important role in nitrogen cycle
What is an example of beta?
nitrosomonas (converts ammonium to nitrite)
What are 5 examples of gamma?
1. T. namibiensis (giant sulfur bacterium)
4. V cholerate
5. E. coli
What are 2 examples of delta?
1. myxobacteria (create drought-resistant myxospores)
2. bdellovibrios (attack bacteria)
What is a quality of epsilon?
contains a lot of pathogens
What are 2 examples of epsilon?
1. Campylobacter (causes blood poisoning)
2. H. pylori (causes stomach ulcers)
can survive only within animal cells
What is an example of chlamydia?
chlamydia trachomatis (most common cause of blindness in world, most common STD)
-free-living/pathgenic heterotrophs sprial
-spiral through their environment by rotating, flagellum-like filaments
What are 2 examples of spirochetes
2. lyme disease
-photoautrophs are the only prokaryotes with plant-like O2 genertaing photosynthesis
-abundant in atmosphere through photosynthesis
example of cyanobacteria
Oscillatoria (filamentous cyanobacterium)
What are stromatolites
decompose soil (2 species cause tuberculosis + leprosy)
cause of anthrax
cause of botulism toxin
smallest known cells
-cultured by pharmaceutical companies as source of antibiotics
What are 2 types of extremophiles? (archaea)
What are halophiles?
live in highly saline environment
What are thermophiles?
live in very hot environment
What do gram positive bacteria include?
2. bacillus anthracis
3. clostridium botulinum
What are methanogens
-strict anaerobes poisoned by O2
-live in swamps/marshes
-release methane as by product of their unique ways of obtaining energy
What are chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes?
-function as decomposers
-break down dead organisms and waste products
one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any significant way
organism harms but does not kill host
symbiotic organisms benefit
parasites that cause disease
secreted + cause disease even if prokaryotes that produce them aren't present
released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down
What are 4 uses of prokaryotes in research + technology
1. gene cloning using E. coli
2. transgenic plants
3. natural plastics, vitamins, antibiotics, hormones, ethanol, bioremediation