Lecture 22 - Prokaryotes 2 (SI) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Prokaryotes 2 (SI) Deck (45):
1

What are the 4 proteobacteria subgroups of gram-negative bacteria?

1. alpha
2. beta
3. gamma
3. delta
4. epsilon

2

What is a result of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes?

-obscures the root of the tree of life

3

What are the 3 domains of life?

1. bacteria
2. archaea
3. eukarya

4

Which domains have a nuclear envelop?

-eukarya

5

Which domains have membrane organelles

-eukarya

6

Which domains have peptidoglycan in cell wall

-bacteria

7

Which domains have unbranched hydrocarbons?

-bacteria
-eukarya

8

Which domains have some branched hydrocarbons?

archaea

9

Which domains have one kind of RNA polymerase?

-bacteria

10

Which domains have several kinds of RNA polymerase?

-archaea
-eukarya

11

What kind of initiator for amino acid for protein synthesis do each have?

bacteria: formylmethionine
archaea: methionine
eukarya: methionine

12

What are 2 qualities of alpha?

1. many associate with eukaryotic hosts
-mitochondria evolved from aerobic alphaproteobacteria

13

What are 2 examples of alpha?

1. Rhizobium (forms root nodules in legumes, fixes N2)
2. Agrobacterium (produce tumors, used in genetic engineering

14

What is a quality of beta?

holds important role in nitrogen cycle

15

What is an example of beta?

nitrosomonas (converts ammonium to nitrite)

16

What are 5 examples of gamma?

1. T. namibiensis (giant sulfur bacterium)
2. Legionella
3. Salmonella
4. V cholerate
5. E. coli

17

What are 2 examples of delta?

1. myxobacteria (create drought-resistant myxospores)
2. bdellovibrios (attack bacteria)

18

What is a quality of epsilon?

contains a lot of pathogens

19

What are 2 examples of epsilon?

1. Campylobacter (causes blood poisoning)
2. H. pylori (causes stomach ulcers)

20

chlamydias

can survive only within animal cells

21

What is an example of chlamydia?

chlamydia trachomatis (most common cause of blindness in world, most common STD)

22

Spirochetes

-free-living/pathgenic heterotrophs sprial
-spiral through their environment by rotating, flagellum-like filaments

23

What are 2 examples of spirochetes

1. syphilis
2. lyme disease

24

Cyanobacteria

-photoautrophs are the only prokaryotes with plant-like O2 genertaing photosynthesis
-abundant in atmosphere through photosynthesis

25

example of cyanobacteria

Oscillatoria (filamentous cyanobacterium)

26

What are stromatolites

reef-forming cyanobacteria

27

Actinomycetes

decompose soil (2 species cause tuberculosis + leprosy)

28

Bacillus anthracis

cause of anthrax

29

Clostridium botulinum

cause of botulism toxin

30

Mycoplasms

smallest known cells

31

Streptomyces

-cultured by pharmaceutical companies as source of antibiotics
-streptomycin

32

What are 2 types of extremophiles? (archaea)

1. halophiles
2. thermophiles

33

What are halophiles?

live in highly saline environment

34

What are thermophiles?

live in very hot environment

35

What do gram positive bacteria include?

1. actimonycetes
2. bacillus anthracis
3. clostridium botulinum
4. Staphylococcus/streptococcus
5. mycoplasms

36

What are methanogens

-strict anaerobes poisoned by O2
-live in swamps/marshes
-release methane as by product of their unique ways of obtaining energy

37

What are chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes?

-function as decomposers
-break down dead organisms and waste products

38

Commensalism

one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any significant way

39

Parasitism

organism harms but does not kill host

40

Mutualistic

symbiotic organisms benefit

41

Pathogenic

parasites that cause disease

42

Exotoxins

secreted + cause disease even if prokaryotes that produce them aren't present

43

Endotoxins

released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down

44

What are 4 uses of prokaryotes in research + technology

1. gene cloning using E. coli
2. transgenic plants
3. natural plastics, vitamins, antibiotics, hormones, ethanol, bioremediation

45

What is bioremediation?

use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment