Lectures 27/28 - Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures 27/28 - Plants Deck (67):
1

_____ and plants share a common ancestor

charophytes

2

What are 5 characteristics that separate plants from charophytes?

1. alternation of generations
2. multicellular, dependent embryos
3. Walled spores in sporangia
4. multicellular gametangia
5. apical meristems (grows up)

3

Why are plants called embrophytes?

-dependent embryos housed within parent gamenophyte

4

What makes spores so special?

they have sporinpollenin

5

What are the 2 types of vascular tissue?

1. xylem
2. phloem

6

What is xylem made of?

-traechied cells

7

What is sporinpollenin?

prevents exposed zygotes from drying out

8

What are lignin?

-strengthen water conducting cells like xylem
-provide structural support

9

What do xylem transport?

water + minerals

10

What do Phloem transport?

sugars, amino acids, organic material

11

What are the 2 types of leaves?

1. microphylls
2. megaphylls

12

What are microphylls?

leaves with a single vein

13

What are megaphylls?

leaves with a highly branched vascular system

14

Are gametophytes haploid or diploid?

haploid

15

What are 2 other features in vascular plants not found in other plants

1. leaves
2. roots

16

Gametophytes produce _____ gametes by _____

haploid, mitosis

17

are sporophytes diploid or haploid?

diploid

18

Sporophytes produce ____ _____ by ______

haploid, spores, meiosis

19

What are heterosporous plants?

-produce megaspores that become female gametophytes
-microspores that become male gametophytes

20

What are homosporous plants?

produce bisexual gametopytes

21

What are the 3 phyla of seedless nonvascular plants?

1. hepatophyta (Liverworts)
2. anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
3. brophyta (mosses)

22

What is the ecological importance of Peat moss?

can be used as source of fuel

23

How are seedless vascular plants grouped?

part of a grade

24

What is a grade?

based off similar characteristics rather than common ancestor

25

What are the 2 phyla of seedless vascular plants?

1. Lycophytes (club mosses)
2. Monilophytes (ferns)

26

What is the ecological importance of seedless vascular plants?

-caused global cooling during carboniferous
-formed coal deposits

27

What is an integument?

-2n
-protective layer for the seed

28

How many integuments in gymnosperms? angiosperms?

2,3

29

What is a megaspore?

-1n
-larger (female?) spore

30

What is a seed?

embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

31

What is a gymnosperm?

naked seed plants (including conifers)

32

What is an angiosperm/

flowering plants

33

What is the seed coat?

allows for seeds to survive better than unprotected spores

34

What is the food supply?

develops from the megasporangium

35

What is the megasporangium

-2n
-food for developing embryo

36

What is the embryo?

developing sporophyte

37

In seed plants, where are gametophytes housed?

reduced gametophytes housed in sporophytes

38

What are pollen grains?

allow for fertilization without water (pollination)

39

What is heterospory?

allows for different male and female parts

40

(Gymnosperms) miniaturization of their ______

gametophytes

41

(Gymnosperms) development of ___ from fertilized _____

seeds, ovules

42

(Gymnosperms) transfer of sperm to ovules by _____

pollen

43

(Gymnosperms) Cone we recognize in a pine tree produces ____

megaspores

44

(Gymnosperms) smaller cone produces _____

microspores

45

What are 3 Phyla of gymnosperms?

1. Cycadophyta (look like palm tree, flagellated sperm)
2. Gnetphyta
3. Coniferophyta (evergreens, photosynthesis all year)

46

What is the phyla of angiosperms?

anthrophyta

47

What are the main evolution differences between gymnosperms and anthrophyta?

-flowers
-fruits

48

What are the 2 groups within angiosperms?

1. monocots
2. eudicots

49

(Monocots) Cotyledon

1

50

(Monocots) leaf venation

parallel

51

(Monocots) vascular distribution

scattered

52

(Monocots) roots

fibrous

53

(Monocots) pollen grain

1 opening

54

(Monocots) flowers in multiples of

three

55

(Eudicots) cotyledon

2

56

(Eudicots) leaf venation

netlike

57

(Eudicots) vascular distribution

in a ring

58

(Eudicots) roots

has tap (main root)

59

(Eudicots) pollen grain

3 opneings

60

(Eudicots) flowers

in multiples of four or five

61

What is special about angiosperm reproduction?

-double fertilization, 2 sperms fertilize same gametophyte
-makes the endosperm

62

What is the carpel?

-produces ovules
-contains ovary
-style
-stigma

63

What is the style?

tube

64

What is the stigma?

where pollen is received

65

What ist he stamen?

-contains stalk (fillament)
-anther (where pollen is produced)

66

What is the sepal?

encloses flower

67

What is the petal

attract pollenators