Flashcards in Lectures 27/28 - Plants Deck (67):
_____ and plants share a common ancestor
What are 5 characteristics that separate plants from charophytes?
1. alternation of generations
2. multicellular, dependent embryos
3. Walled spores in sporangia
4. multicellular gametangia
5. apical meristems (grows up)
Why are plants called embrophytes?
-dependent embryos housed within parent gamenophyte
What makes spores so special?
they have sporinpollenin
What are the 2 types of vascular tissue?
What is xylem made of?
What is sporinpollenin?
prevents exposed zygotes from drying out
What are lignin?
-strengthen water conducting cells like xylem
-provide structural support
What do xylem transport?
water + minerals
What do Phloem transport?
sugars, amino acids, organic material
What are the 2 types of leaves?
What are microphylls?
leaves with a single vein
What are megaphylls?
leaves with a highly branched vascular system
Are gametophytes haploid or diploid?
What are 2 other features in vascular plants not found in other plants
Gametophytes produce _____ gametes by _____
are sporophytes diploid or haploid?
Sporophytes produce ____ _____ by ______
haploid, spores, meiosis
What are heterosporous plants?
-produce megaspores that become female gametophytes
-microspores that become male gametophytes
What are homosporous plants?
produce bisexual gametopytes
What are the 3 phyla of seedless nonvascular plants?
1. hepatophyta (Liverworts)
2. anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
3. brophyta (mosses)
What is the ecological importance of Peat moss?
can be used as source of fuel
How are seedless vascular plants grouped?
part of a grade
What is a grade?
based off similar characteristics rather than common ancestor
What are the 2 phyla of seedless vascular plants?
1. Lycophytes (club mosses)
2. Monilophytes (ferns)
What is the ecological importance of seedless vascular plants?
-caused global cooling during carboniferous
-formed coal deposits
What is an integument?
-protective layer for the seed
How many integuments in gymnosperms? angiosperms?
What is a megaspore?
-larger (female?) spore
What is a seed?
embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat
What is a gymnosperm?
naked seed plants (including conifers)
What is an angiosperm/
What is the seed coat?
allows for seeds to survive better than unprotected spores
What is the food supply?
develops from the megasporangium
What is the megasporangium
-food for developing embryo
What is the embryo?
In seed plants, where are gametophytes housed?
reduced gametophytes housed in sporophytes
What are pollen grains?
allow for fertilization without water (pollination)
What is heterospory?
allows for different male and female parts
(Gymnosperms) miniaturization of their ______
(Gymnosperms) development of ___ from fertilized _____
(Gymnosperms) transfer of sperm to ovules by _____
(Gymnosperms) Cone we recognize in a pine tree produces ____
(Gymnosperms) smaller cone produces _____
What are 3 Phyla of gymnosperms?
1. Cycadophyta (look like palm tree, flagellated sperm)
3. Coniferophyta (evergreens, photosynthesis all year)
What is the phyla of angiosperms?
What are the main evolution differences between gymnosperms and anthrophyta?
What are the 2 groups within angiosperms?
(Monocots) leaf venation
(Monocots) vascular distribution
(Monocots) pollen grain
(Monocots) flowers in multiples of
(Eudicots) leaf venation
(Eudicots) vascular distribution
in a ring
has tap (main root)
(Eudicots) pollen grain
in multiples of four or five
What is special about angiosperm reproduction?
-double fertilization, 2 sperms fertilize same gametophyte
-makes the endosperm
What is the carpel?
What is the style?
What is the stigma?
where pollen is received
What ist he stamen?
-contains stalk (fillament)
-anther (where pollen is produced)
What is the sepal?