Lecture 22 - Prokaryotes 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Prokaryotes 2 Deck (46):
1

What is the most diverse domain?

bacteria

2

What are the two domains of prokaryotes?

1. bacteria
2. archaea

3

Where did chloroplasts come from?

cyanobacteria

4

What has allowed for more rapid sequencing of prokaryote genomes?

The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

5

What obscures the root of the tree of life?

horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes

6

What are the 3 domains of life?

1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya

7

Bacteria include the vast majority of _______ species

prokaryotic

8

What are proteobacteria?

-gram-negative bacteria
-include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, heterotrophs
-some anaerobic, others aerobic

9

What are the 5 subgroups of proteobacteria?

1. alpha
2. beta
3. gamma
3. delta
4. epsilon

10

Many species of alpha proteobacteria are closely associated with __________

eukaryotic hosts

11

What are 2 examples of alpha proteobacteria?

1. Rhizobium
2. Agrobacterium

12

What do scientists hypothesize about mitochondria?

evolved from aerobic alpha proteobacteria through endosymbiosis

13

What is an example of a beta proteobacteria?

Nitrosomonas (soil bacterium)

14

What is nitrification?

converting NH4+ to NO2-

15

What is an example of a gamma proteobacteria?

1. sulfur bacteria Thiomargarita namibiensis
2. pathogens Legionella, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, E. Coli

16

What are examples of a delta proteobacteria?

1. myxobacteria
2. bdellovibrios

17

What are examples of epsilon proteobacteria?

1. pathogens Campylobacter, Helicobacter pylori

18

What are Chlamydias

-parasits
-causes blindless
-sexual transmission

19

What are Spirochetes?

-helical hetertrophs
-some are parasites (Treponema pallidum, causes syphilis)

20

What are cyanobacteria?

-photoautogrophs that generate O2
-evolved into chloroplasts by endosymbiosis

21

What is the chem. reaction for photosynthesis?

CO2 + H2O ---> CH2O + O2

22

When did stromatolites die out?

When eukaryotes evolved

23

What are 5 examples of gram-positive bacteria?

1. Actinomycetes
2. Bacillus anthracis
3. Clostrdium botulinum
4. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
5. Mycoplasms

24

What is the smallest organism?

fibroblast

25

Some archaea are ________

extremophiles

26

What are extremophiles?

archaea that can live in extreme enviornments

27

Where do extreme halophiles live?

highly saline environments

28

Where do extreme thermophiles live?

in very hot environments

29

What are methanogens?

-make methane as waste product from CO2
-keep earth heated or unheated

30

What are 2 qualities of methanogens?

1. live in swamps and marches
2. strict anaerobes

31

Prokaryotes play a major role in the recycling of _______

chemical elements between living and nonliving components of ecosystems

32

What do decomposers do?

break down dead organisms and waste products

33

Which prokaryotes function as decomposers?

chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes

34

Prokaryotes can sometimes increase the availability of ____, _____, and _____ for plant growth

-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

35

What is symbiosis?

-an ecological relationship
-two species live in close contact (host, symbiont)

36

What happens in mutualism?

both symbiotic organisms benefit

37

What happens in commensalism?

-one organism benefits
-neither harming nor helping the other

38

What happens in parasitism ?

organism (parasite) harms but does not kill its host

39

What are pathogens?

parasites that cause disease

40

How do pathogenic prokaryotes typically cause disease?

-releasing exotoxins or endotoxisn

41

What are exotoxins?

-secreted
-cause disease even if prokaryotes that produce them are not present

42

What are endotoxins?

-released only when bacteria die, and cell walls break down

43

What can horizontal gene transfer spread?

genes associated with virulence EX: E. Coli

44

What kind of important advances have experiments using prokaryotes led to?

DNA technology
EX: E. coli used in gene cloning
EX: agrobacterium tumefaciens used to produce transgenic plants
-plastics

45

what is bioremediation?

use of organisms to remove pollutants form teh environment

46

What are 3 things that bacteria can be engineered to produce?

1. vitamins
2. antibiotics
3. hormones