Lecture 15 - Conservation Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 - Conservation Genetics Deck (23):
1

What are the six fields that conservation biology integrates?

1. ecology
2. behavior ecology
3. physiology
4. molecular biology
5. genetics
6. evolution

2

What are the 2 fields that make up conservation genetics?

-genetics
-evolution

3

Why has the interest in conservation biology grown?

concerns over loss of biodiversity

4

We are losing _______ at all levels

diversity

5

What are 2 reasons to preserve biodiversity?

1. for its own sake
2. for humans own sake

6

What are 5 ecosystem services?

1. pollination
2. nutrient cycling
3. purification of air/water
4. detoxification/decomposition of wastes
5. moderation of weather extremes

7

What are 2 uses of genetics in aid conservation?

1. diagnose populations/species at genetic risk
2. prioritize populations/species worth of protection

8

What are 2 reasons that cause a small pop. to be at genetic risk?

1. inbreeding depression
2. low genetic variation

9

What is inbreeding depression?

-breeding with close relative
-increases chance that parents will share same deleterious recessive alleles

10

In inbreeding depression what happens to the deleterious recessives?

exposed as homozygotes in offspring

11

What can low genetic variation result in?

-reduced ability to adapt to environmental changes
EX: alterations in climate

12

What are examples of a species harboring genetic variation to deal with never experienced challenges?

-melanic moths
-pesticide tolerance

13

Which species are particularly vulnerable to environmental challenges?

species with low genetic variation

14

What does low genetic var. and small pop. cause?

extinction vortex

15

What is a primary example of an extinction vortex?

prairie chickens

16

What is effective population size?

-size of ideal pop
-lose genetic variation due to genetic drift at same rate as actual pop.

17

What are 5 qualities of an ideal population/

1. random mating
2. no fluctuations in pop. size over ime
3. no overlapping generations
4. equal family sizes
5. equal sex ratios

18

What does deviations from these ideal conditions generally cause?

effective pop size to be lower than census size

19

What are 2 general rules of conservation biologists?

1. preserve things that are unique/unusual
2. do not put resources towards hybrids

20

What is an extinction vortex?

result of interaction between low genetic variation + small pop size (EX: prairie chicken)

21

What is Ne?

-Effective population size
-size of an ideal population that would lose genetic variation due to genetic drift at same rate as the actual population

22

What are ideal conditions for effective population size?

-random mating
-no flucuations in pop size over time
-no overlapping generations
-equal family sizes
-equal sex ratios

23

What are the 5 things that happen cyclically in a small population?

-small population
-inbreeding/genetic drift
-loss of genetic variability
-lower fitness and population adaptability
-lower reproduction, higher mortality