Flashcards in Lecture 38 - Ecology + Biosphere II Deck (32)
What is interspecific competition?
occurs when species compete for a resource in short supply
What is resource partitioning?
-differentiation of ecological niches
-enabling similar species to coexist in a community
What is predation?
interaction in which one species kills and eats the other
What are 6 types of defenses against predation?
2. chemical defense
3. aposematic coloration
4. cryptic coloration
5. Batesian mimicry
6. Mullerian mimicry
What is herbivory?
herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga
What is facilitation?
(+/+) or (0/+)
interaction in which one species has pos. effects on another species without direct and intimate contact
What are 3 types of symbiosis?
1. mutualism (+/+)
2. parasition (+/-)
-endo or ectoparasite
3. commensalism (+/0)
EX: buffalo and bird
What 2 things define species diversity of a community?
1. species richness (number of species)
2. relative abundance (% of each)
What is symbiosis?
relationship where 2 or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
What are 5 traits of communities with higher diversity?
1. more productive (produce more biomass)
2. more stable in productivity
3. more resistant to environmental stresses
4. more resistant to invasive species
What is a trophic structure?
feeding relationships between organisms in a community
What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis?
-a medium amount of disturbances leads to the highest amount of diversity
What is ecological succession?
the sequence of community changes after a disturbance
Why are some of the most diverse areas coral reefs + rainforests?
-both in the tropics
-latitude effects due to lack of climate change
Bigger _____ means more diversity?
What is the area/diversity formula?
S = cA^z
What is a Keystone?
expert strong control on the community, not necessarily most abundant
What is Invasive?
lack predators or disease in community (overpower)
What is Dominant?
most biomass in community
What is Foundation species?
cause physical changes to the environment (ecosystem engineers)
What is trophic efficiency?
-amount of production passed form one trophic level to the next
What are 2 models that describe how trophic levels inhibit one another?
1. bottom-up model (unidirectional influence from lower to higher)
2. top-down model (trophic cascade, control comes from trophic level above)
What are the differences between gross primary production and net primary production?
gross: total amount of energy formed due to photosynthesis
(expressed as energy or biomass)
net: gross minus amount of energy plants use for its own respiration
In aquatic systems what is limiting?
light and nutrients
What is the limiting nutrient in aquatic systems?
-nutrient that must be added for NPP to increase (phosphorus or nitrogen or iron)
What is limiting in terrestrial systems?
How can water and nutrients be recycled?
What is the law of conservation of mass?
matter cannot be created or destroyed (chemical elements are continually recycled within ecosystems)
What are 2 ways ecosystems can be fixed?
2. biological augmentation