Lesson 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 11 Deck (101)
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1
Q

Translate to French:

I am going to apologize to him later tonight

A

Je vais lui demander pardon plus tard ce soir

to apologize to - demander pardon à. You could also use the verb s'excuser or the expression présenter des excuses.

2
Q

Translate to French:

Are you going to feed the children?

A

Vas-tu nourrir les enfants?

to feed - nourrir, donner à manger

3
Q

Translate to French:

She has to feed the animals

A

Elle doit nourrir les animaux

an animal - un animal. Note the plural form.

4
Q

Translate to French:

What kind of pet do you have?

A

Quel type d'animal domestique avez-vous?

a pet - un animal domestique. Note that a more colloquial way of asking this would be Tu as quoi comme animal domestique?

5
Q

Translate to French:

The male is often larger and more muscular

A

Le mâle est souvent plus grand et plus musclé

a male - un mâle. Note that mâle is also an adjective. The term is normally used to talk about animals.

6
Q

Translate to French:

What is the difference between the male and the female?

A

Quelle est la différence entre le mâle et la femelle?

a female - une femelle. Like mâle, femelle can also be used as an adjective. This term is only used to talk about animals.

7
Q

Translate to French:

I have only two pets

A

Je n'ai que deux animaux domestiques

only - ne... que. If the sentence were "I only have pets" (without the specific number of pets), you would have to use the partitive: Je n'ai que des animaux domestiques. Another way of saying "only" is with the adverb seulement.

8
Q

Translate to French:

I have only two pets

A

J'ai seulement deux animaux domestiques

only - seulement. Recall that as an alternative, you can use the construction ne... que.

9
Q

Translate to French:

He only bought one thing today because he knows he will get Christmas presents. He bought one thing today only because he knows he will get Christmas presents

A

Il n'a acheté qu'une chose aujourd'hui parce qu'il sait qu'il va recevoir des cadeaux de Noël. Il a acheté une chose aujourd'hui seulement parce qu'il sait qu'il va recevoir des cadeaux de Noël

Note how the placement of que and/or seulement changes the meaning as far as what is qualified by "only."

10
Q

Translate to French:

I do not only have three cars, I have two boats too

A

Je n'ai pas que trois voitures, j'ai deux bateaux aussi

not only - ne... pas que. There are other ways of saying "not only," using seulement.

11
Q

Translate to French:

I do not only have three cars, I have two boats too

A

Je n'ai pas seulement trois voitures, j'ai deux bateaux aussi

not only - ne... pas seulement

12
Q

Translate to French:

Not only do I have two dogs, but I have three cats too

A

Non seulement j'ai deux chiens, mais aussi trois chats

not only - non seulement. This construction cannot stand alone and requires something to balance it; in this case, aussi serves that purpose.

13
Q

Translate to French:

I'm going to the pet store to buy some dog food

A

Je vais à l'animalerie pour acheter de la nourriture pour chien

a pet store - une animalerie

14
Q

Translate to French:

No one knows this personne

A

Nul ne connait cette personne

no one... - nul ne... This is a formal alternative to personne ne...

15
Q

Translate to French:

She is not going anywhere

A

Elle ne va nulle part

nowhere, not anywhere - ne... nulle part

16
Q

Translate to French:

We are going to buy a Christmas tree next week

A

Nous allons acheter un arbre de Noël la semaine prochaine

a tree - un arbre

17
Q

Translate to French:

There are hundreds of trees in this small forest

A

Il y a des centaines d'arbres dans cette petite forêt

a forest - une forêt. Note that "jungle" is jungle, which is also feminine.

18
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) Do you want to go hiking in the countryside?

A

Voulez-vous faire de la randonnée dans la campagne?

the countryside - la campagne

19
Q

Translate to French:

In France, we eat a lot of duck

A

En France, on mange beaucoup de canard

a duck - un canard

20
Q

Translate to French:

My uncle has a farm in the countryside

A

Mon oncle a une ferme à la campagne

a farm - une ferme

21
Q

Translate to French:

I hope that we will see the farm

A

J'espère qu'on va voir la ferme

to hope - espérer. Note how "to hope that" is espérer que + a verb in the indicative mood. "To hope for" or "to count on" is translated by espérer en + a noun.

22
Q

What is the imperfect tense in French?

A

The imperfect tense (l'imparfait) is a descriptive form of the past tense. It denotes incomplete and/or repeated actions, or an ongoing state of being. It is used for past habits, descriptions, and actions of unspecified duration. The imperfect is most often translated in English as "was" or "was ___-ing."

23
Q

How do you conjugate the imperfect tense?

A

Take the present tense nous form of the verb in question and drop the original ending. Then add the imperfect endings: ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient.

For example, the je form of arriver in the imperfect is j'arrivais.

24
Q

Translate to French:

In 2006, I was going to school every day

A

En 2006, j'allais à l'école tous les jours

Note the first-person singular in the imperfect tense of the verb aller. This is formed by taking the stem of the present tense nous form (all-) and adding the appropriate imperfect ending.

25
Q

Translate to French:

  • I was going
  • you were going
  • he/she/it was going
  • we were going
  • you (plural) were going
  • they were going
A
  • j'allais
  • tu allais
  • il/elle/on allait
  • nous allions
  • vous alliez
  • ils/elles allaient
26
Q

Translate to French:

He was studying. We were studying too

A

Il étudiait. Nous étudiions aussi

The imperfect root for this verb is étudi-, which results in a double "i" in both the nous and vous forms.

27
Q

Translate to French:

When he was nine, he studied very little

A

Quand il avait neuf ans, il étudiait très peu

Note the imperfect of the verb avoir. The imperfect is used here to describe a past habit.

28
Q

Translate to French:

She used to eat a lot

A

Elle mangeait beaucoup

The imperfect is used for past habits or states of being, so the imperfect of manger can convey that the subject "used to eat." The imperfect root of manger is mange-, except for the nous and vous forms, which don't need the "e": nous mangions, vous mangiez.

29
Q

Translate to French:

It was nice out yesterday

A

Il faisait beau hier

Note the imperfect of the verb faire, which takes the stem fais-. Also note how the imperfect is used to describe weather in the past. The imperfect is generally used for any physical and emotional descriptions in the past.

30
Q

Translate to French:

It was raining on my birthday

A

Il pleuvait le jour de mon anniversaire

Note that the imperfect stem of pleuvoir is pleuv-.

31
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) Were you lying to your mother?

A

Est-ce que vous mentiez à votre mère?

32
Q

Translate to French:

She believed in me

A

Elle croyait en moi

33
Q

Translate to French:

I was going to sit on the sofa, but it's no longer in the living room

A

J'allais m'asseoir sur le canapé, mais il n'est plus dans le salon

34
Q

Translate to French:

  • I was
  • you were
  • he/she/it was
  • we were
  • you (plural) were
  • they were
A
  • j'étais
  • tu étais
  • il/elle/on était
  • nous étions
  • vous étiez
  • ils/elles étaient

Être is irregular in the imperfect in that it doesn't use its present tense nous form as the stem.

35
Q

Translate to French:

When I was young, I often went to the supermarket near my house

A

Quand j'étais petit, j'allais souvent au supermarché près de chez moi

Note the imperfect of être. It is common to say quand j'étais petit to mean "when I was young" (rather than quand j'étais jeune).

36
Q

Translate to French:

We had just eaten

A

On venait de manger

In the past, the construction venir de + infinitive is conjugated in the imperfect.

37
Q

Translate to French:

He was in the process of making a meal

A

Il était en train de faire à manger

In the past, the construction être en train de + infinitive is used in the imperfect.

38
Q

Translate to French:

There was a student in the classroom

A

Il y avait un étudiant dans la salle

Note that the expression il y a can be used in tenses other than the present; simply conjugate avoir in the intended tense.

39
Q

Translate to French:

She was writing in her office. Meanwhile, I was taking a shower

A

Elle écrivait dans son bureau. Pendant ce temps, je prenais une douche

meanwhile - pendant ce temps. Note the imperfect tense of the verbs écrire and prendre.

40
Q

Translate to French:

He is in the middle of the street

A

Il est au milieu de la rue

the middle, the center - le milieu, le centre. Note that milieu can also mean "environment."

41
Q

Translate to French:

They played sports because they had free time

A

Ils faisaient du sport parce qu'ils avaient du temps libre

The imperfect is used here to describe an unspecified duration of time: the beginning and end of the past actions/conditions are not indicated. So even though the first verb's English translation is "played" instead of "were playing," the imperfect is appropriate.

42
Q

Translate to French:

In the past, people believed that the earth was (at) the center of the universe

A

Autrefois, on croyait que la terre était au centre de l'univers

in the past, formerly - autrefois, auparavant

43
Q

Translate to French:

I was going up the stairs when I fell

A

Je montais les escaliers quand je suis tombé

Both the imparfait and passé composé are used here. The imperfect is used to set the background of the scenario, which is then interrupted by the action in the passé composé.

44
Q

Translate to French:

The dog was hungry when we found it

A

Le chien avait faim quand nous l'avons trouvé

Note the use of both the imperfect and the passé composé here.

45
Q

Translate to French:

They were coming home when they decided to stop at the store

A

Elles rentraient à la maison quand elles ont décidé de s'arrêter au magasin

Note the use of both the imperfect and the passé composé.

46
Q

Translate to French:

They were skiing when I arrived

A

Ils faisaient du ski quand je suis arrivé

47
Q

Translate to French:

He was a professor at the time

A

Il était alors professeur

at the time, at that time - alors. Recall that this word most often means "so" or "then." Used like this, however, it takes on this different, time-related meaning.

48
Q

Translate to French:

You arrived as I was leaving

A

Tu es arrivé alors que je partais

while, as, at that time - alors que. Note that alors que can sometimes also mean "even though."

49
Q

Translate to French:

Marcel wanted to start even though Jules wasn't with us

A

Marcel voulait commencer alors que Jules n'était pas avec nous

even though - alors que. You can infer this meaning of alors que largely based on context. You can also say "even though" with the expression bien que.

50
Q

Translate to French:

You can do your homework while I watch the movie

A

Tu peux faire tes devoirs pendant que je regarde le film

while - pendant que, tandis que. An alternative is tout en: Je nettoie le salon tout en regardant un film -- "I clean the living room while watching a film."

51
Q

Translate to French:

She likes that song whereas I hate it

A

Elle aime cette chanson tandis que je la déteste

whereas, while (contradiction) - tandis que. Two alternatives with which to present opposition and/or contradiction are alors que and lorsque.

52
Q

Translate to French:

When I was young, I used to be afraid of dogs

A

Lorsque j'étais petit, j'avais peur des chiens

when, as soon as - lorsque. Used like this, lorsque means "when" and is thus a synonym of quand. Note, however, that it can also mean "as soon as" and is not always interchangeable with quand.

53
Q

Translate to French:

He has not seen you in a while

A

Il ne t'a pas vu depuis quelque temps

awhile, a while - quelque temps, un moment. Note that quelque temps is an adverb ("awhile"), whereas un moment is a noun ("a while").

54
Q

Translate to French:

There's a river somewhere in this jungle

A

Il y a une rivière quelque part dans cette jungle

somewhere - quelque part

55
Q

Translate to French:

How long had they been arguing when you went to bed?

A

Depuis combien de temps se disputaient-ils quand tu es allé te coucher?

Note how depuis is used here to show that something was happening in the past when something else occurred. When a past action interrupts another past action, both the imperfect and passé composé are used.

56
Q

Translate to French:

From the age of nine on, he was scared of animals

A

Dès l'âge de neuf ans, il avait peur des animaux

from, as soon as - dès, dès que. Dès que, "as soon as," is often employed with the future tense. Note also that dès lors means "henceforth" or "from then on."

57
Q

Translate to French:

The supermarket is open from 8 am on

A

Le supermarché est ouvert à partir de 8 heures

from - à partir de. This expression is used with dates, time, or places. It forms the basis of several other expressions, like à partir de maintenant ("from now on") and à partir de ce moment-là ("from then on").

58
Q

Translate to French:

I have no idea

A

Je n'ai aucune idée

no, none (of), not any (of) - ne... aucun. Note the agreement of aucun with the feminine noun that it's modifying.

59
Q

Translate to French:

I see some ducks. Now I see no ducks

A

Je vois quelques canards. Maintenant je ne vois aucun canard

Note how ne... aucun serves as the negative replacement for quelque(s).

60
Q

Translate to French:

I no longer have any pants

A

Je n'ai plus aucun pantalon

no longer any - ne... plus aucun. In this construction, aucun must agree with the noun being modified.

61
Q

Translate to French:

None of these houses is yellow

A

Aucune de ces maisons n'est jaune

none (of) - aucun (de)... ne. An "e" has been added to aucun since maisons is feminine. However, the verb is conjugated in the third-person singular because the singular aucune is the subject. Finally, note the negative ne before the verb.

62
Q

Translate to French:

They are not bright at all

A

Ils ne sont pas du tout brillants

not at all - ne... pas du tout

63
Q

Translate to French:

She did not buy a single shirt

A

Elle n'a acheté aucune chemise

Negative words (ne + pas/rien/etc.) usually surround the conjugated auxiliary verb in compound tenses. Personne, aucun, and nulle part are exceptions to this rule, and come after both the auxiliary verb and the participle. For instance, you cannot say Elle n'a aucune acheté chemise.

64
Q

Translate to French:

It is hardly possible

A

Il n'est guère possible

hardly - ne... guère. This construction is used formally.

65
Q

Translate to French:

I (simply) cannot do it

A

Je ne peux point le faire

not (for emphasis) - ne... point. This construction is used formally and for emphasis.

66
Q

Translate to French:

I'm going to call my mother later

A

Je vais téléphoner à ma mere plus tard

to call (someone) - téléphoner (à quelqu'un), appeler (quelqu'un). Téléphoner takes the preposition à; therefore, the verb takes an indirect object, whereas its English equivalent takes a direct object. Appeler, however, is like English in that it takes a direct object.

67
Q

Translate to French:

I'm going to send my mother a gift for her birthday

A

Je vais envoyer un cadeau à ma mère pour son anniversaire

to send - envoyer. Note that "to send something to someone" is envoyer quelque chose à quelqu'un.

68
Q

Translate to French:

He likes this play's characters as well as the fact that it takes place in Paris

A

Il aime les personnages de cette pièce ainsi que le fait qu'elle a lieu à Paris

as well as, like, just as - ainsi que

69
Q

Translate to French:

His company supports the poor

A

Son entreprise soutient les pauvres

to support - soutenir. This verb is the most appropriate translation of "to support"; one alternative is supporter, but that is an informal Anglicism that many consider incorrect. Note how the word pauvre can function as both an adjective and a noun.

70
Q

Translate to French:

I can't stand this kind of behavior!

A

Je ne supporte pas ce type de comportement!

to stand, to put up/deal with - supporter. This is a common use of this verb, which can also mean "to accept" or "to bear."

71
Q

Translate to French:

I was athletic but my brother was even more so

A

J'étais athlétique mais mon frère l'était davantage

more - davantage. This is a comparative word both signifying and emphasizing superiority. It is roughly translated by "more" and is usually placed at the end of sentences. Note the object pronoun l', representing the act of being athletic.

72
Q

Translate to French:

Our house is much smaller than theirs

A

Notre maison est beaucoup plus petite que la leur

smaller, the smallest - plus petit, le plus petit. These are the regular comparative and superlative forms of the adjective petit.

73
Q

Translate to French:

You guys don't have the slightest idea

A

Vous n'avez pas la moindre idée

the least, the slightest - le moindre

74
Q

Translate to French:

We prepared a meal that is superior to the one from last week

A

Nous avons préparé un repas qui est supérieur à celui de la semaine dernière

superior to - supérieur à. Note that the opposite structure also exists: "inferior to" -- inférieur à.

75
Q

Translate to French:

The more I go to school, the more I feel like learning

A

Plus je vais à l'école, plus j'ai envie d'apprendre

the more... the more - plus... plus. Note that the opposite construction also exists: "the less... the less" -- moins... moins.

76
Q

Translate to French:

There were so many people here that we couldn't find Christophe

A

Il y avait tant de personnes ici que nous n'arrivions pas à trouver Christophe

so many - tant de, tellement de

77
Q

Translate to French:

The flowers that Denis brought are beautiful

A

Les fleurs que Denis a apportées sont belles

a flower - une fleur

78
Q

Translate to French:

The flowers were growing very quickly

A

Les fleurs poussaient très vite

to grow - pousser. This verb is used with plants, while grandir is used with people. Growing animals are often described with the verb se développer.

79
Q

Translate to French:

Butterflies seem to love flowers

A

Les papillons semblent adorer les fleurs

a butterfly - un papillon

80
Q

Translate to French:

I was listening to the birds

A

J'écoutais les oiseaux

a bird - un oiseau. Note how the plural form takes an "x."

81
Q

Translate to French:

The horse crossed the river

A

Le cheval a traversé la rivière

a horse - un cheval. Note that the plural is chevaux, while "by horse" is translated by à cheval.

82
Q

Translate to French:

They were riding horses

A

Ils montaient à cheval

to ride (an animal) - monter à. Note how in French the kind of animal is shown in the singular.

83
Q

Translate to French:

I was running along the river when I fell

A

Je courais le long de la rivière quand je suis tombé

along - le long de. Note that this literally translates to "the length of."

84
Q

Translate to French:

He is not French. He comes from somewhere else

A

Il n'est pas français. Il vient d'ailleurs

elsewhere, somewhere else - ailleurs, autre part. Note that the expression par ailleurs means "otherwise" or "besides."

85
Q

Translate to French:

I have never liked cow's milk

A

Je n'ai jamais aimé le lait de vache

a cow - une vache. Note the word for "milk," lait, which is masculine.

86
Q

Translate to French:

Did you eat the rest of the chicken?

A

Avez-vous mangé le reste du poulet?

chicken - le poulet. Like in English, this word applies both to the bird and to the food. Note the noun reste, which of course refers to the "remainder" or "rest" of something.

87
Q

Translate to French:

When I was five years old, I wanted a rabbit

A

Quand j'avais cinq ans, je voulais un lapin

a rabbit - un lapin

88
Q

Translate to French:

It was a very fat pig

A

C'était un très gros cochon

a pig - un cochon, un porc. Only porc applies to the food, "pork."

89
Q

Translate to French:

Goat's milk is delicious

A

Le lait de chèvre est délicieux

a goat - une chèvre

90
Q

Translate to French:

We were going to the circus to see the animals

A

Nous allions au cirque pour voir les animaux

a circus - un cirque

91
Q

Translate to French:

They're going to go on a safari to hunt animals

A

Ils vont faire un safari pour chasser des animaux

a safari - un safari. Note the construction faire un safari. The literal translation of the English, aller sur un safari, is incorrect.

92
Q

Translate to French:

My daughter rode an elephant at the circus

A

Ma fille est montée sur le dos d'un éléphant au cirque

an elephant - un éléphant. Note the use of monter sur le dos d'un éléphant, "to ride on the back of an elephant," instead of monter à éléphant. As an alternative, some French speakers say monter un éléphant to avoid the awkward use of à éléphant.

93
Q

Translate to French:

The lion is often regarded as the king of the jungle

A

Le lion est souvent considéré comme le roi de la jungle

regarded/considered (as) - considéré (comme). Note that lion is a masculine noun.

94
Q

Translate to French:

You were always scared of tigers

A

Tu avais toujours peur des tigres

a tiger - un tigre

95
Q

Translate to French:

Is there a monkey in the tree?

A

Est-ce qu'il y a un singe dans l'arbre?

a monkey - un singe

96
Q

Translate to French:

The giraffe is the tallest animal in the world

A

La girafe est l'animal le plus grand du monde (entier)

a giraffe - une girafe. Note the use of du monde (entier) to mean "in the world."

97
Q

Translate to French:

The children obey their parents

A

Les enfants obéissent à leurs parents

to obey - obéir à. Note that in French this verb takes an indirect object.

98
Q

Translate to French:

By playing with her son, she forgot about her anxiety

A

En jouant avec son fils, elle a oublié son angoisse

anxiety, fear - l'angoisse. This is a feminine noun.

99
Q

Translate to French:

He is relieved to learn that he did not lose his ticket

A

Il est soulagé d'apprendre qu'il n'a pas perdu son billet

relieved - soulagé. This adjective is the past participle of the verb soulager, meaning "to relieve."

100
Q

Translate to French:

The bear was big and mean

A

L'ours était grand et méchant

a bear - un ours

101
Q

Translate to French:

Sheep's fur is used to make wool

A

La fourrure des moutons est utilisée pour (faire de) la laine

fur - la fourrure. Note the masculine noun for "sheep," mouton.