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Flashcards in Lesson 13 Deck (76):

The ocean was very beautiful

L'océan était très beau

an ocean - un océan. Recall that "the sea" is la mer.


The sand seems whiter than usual

Le sable semble être plus blanc que d'habitude

sand - le sable. Note the construction plus... que d'habitude, which means "more... than usual."


The Alps are the most beautiful mountains in the world

Les Alpes sont les plus belles montagnes du monde

a mountain - une montagne. Montagnes russes, or "Russian mountains," is the French term for "roller coaster."


Julie decided to climb the hill with her friends

Julie a décidé de monter la colline avec ses amis

a hill - une colline


The Latin Quarter is found on the Left Bank of the Seine

Le Quartier latin se trouve sur la Rive gauche de la Seine

a river bank - une rive


We're going to the store. Do you want to go there?

Nous allons au magasin. Tu veux y aller?

The adverbial pronoun y is used to replace a location or prepositional phrase beginning with any preposition other than de. It should not, however, be used to replace a phrase that includes a person (e.g. à mon cousin). These phrases get replaced with indirect object pronouns.


Paul is reflecting on his new idea. He reflects on it often

Paul réfléchit à sa nouvelle idée. Il y réfléchit souvent

Note how the pronoun y replaces a phrase containing à plus a noun: à sa nouvelle idée.


Julie likes to go to the market. She goes there on Fridays

Julie aime aller au marché. Elle y va le vendredi

Note how the pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase meaning "at/to a place": au marché.


I am in the kitchen. I am there

Je suis dans la cuisine. J'y suis

Here, the pronoun y replaces a phrase beginning with the preposition dans. Recall that to use y, the object of the preposition must be a thing (places included).


They think about the soccer match. They think about it

Ils pensent au match de foot. Ils y pensent

Here, y replaces a thing following a verb that requires à: au match de foot.


You respond to your dad. You respond to him

Tu réponds à ton père. Tu lui réponds

Remember that when the object of the preposition is a person, you should use indirect object pronouns.


He thinks about the story. He thinks about it

Il pense à l'histoire. Il pense à cela/ Il y pense

Recall that penser à does not allow preceding indirect object pronouns. Also recall that when the indirect object is a thing, you can use à + an indefinite demonstrative pronoun (Il pense à cela). Another option is to replace the preposition and indirect object with y (Il y pense).


I don't want this cake anymore. Do you want some?

Je ne veux plus ce gâteau. Tu en veux?

Note how en is used here not as a preposition, but as a pronoun. The adverbial pronoun en is similar to y, except that it replaces quantities and prepositional phrases beginning with de.


Did Jean speak about his book? Yes, he spoke about it

Est-ce que Jean a parlé de son livre? Oui, il en a parlé

Note how the pronoun en replaces the phrase de son livre.


You come from Grenoble. You come from there

Vous venez de Grenoble. Vous en venez

Note how the pronoun en replaces a noun after the preposition de.


She needs money. She needs it

Elle a besoin d'argent. Elle en a besoin

Note how en is used with an expression followed by de.


He has some sugar. He has some

Il a du sucre. Il en a

Note how en is used to replace a phrase containing a partitive or indefinite article.


I had five pencils. I had five of them

J'avais cinq crayons. J'en avais cinq

Note how en can replace phrases of quantity.


They have too many clothes. They have too many of them

Ils ont trop de vêtements. Ils en ont trop

Note how en replaces a phrase of quantity here.


I am thinking about Julie. Are you thinking about her?

Je pense à Julie. Penses-tu à elle?

Note that y cannot be used to replace à Julie because this phrase refers to a person. To avoid repetition, Julie can at least be replaced by the disjunctive pronoun elle.


I see clouds beyond the mountains

Je vois des nuages au-delà des montagnes

beyond - au-delà de. This word can apply both to physical distance and time.


The book is up there

Le livre est là-haut

up there - là-haut. The prefix là- can be added to adverbs of place. It means "that" or "there." Its opposite is the prefix ci-, which has more uses.


It was on top of that

C'était là-dessus

on top of that - là-dessus. Note that the opposite of this phrase is là-dessous, "under that."


He is going to look inside that

Il va regarder là-dedans

inside - dedans. Note how this adverb is used here with the prefix là-. Also note that the opposite of dedans is dehors, "outside."


You will find the explanation below

Vous trouverez l'explication ci-dessous

The prefix ci- is usually used in the context of written documents. It can be added to adverbs (as in the example), but also to prepositions, past participles, and adjectives. (Ci-joint, for example, means "attached here.") Its opposite is the prefix là-.


We are going to jump over the barrier. We are going to jump over it

Nous allons sauter par-dessus la barrière. Nous allons sauter par-dessus

over (it) - par-dessus. This construction denotes movement. Note how it does not have to be followed by a noun. Its opposite is par-dessous, "under (it)."


She always behaved normally with regard to her teachers

Elle se comportait toujours normalement envers ses enseignants

toward, with regard to - envers, à l'égard de. Envers is both a preposition and a noun: as a noun, it means "back(side)" or "other side."


He was wearing his shirt inside out

Il portait sa chemise à l'envers

inside out, upside down - à l'envers


I am walking through the forest

Je marche à travers la forêt

through, across - à travers


My sister is going to France next summer. She comes from China

Ma soeur va en France l'été prochain. Elle vient de Chine

The use of prepositions with geographical names is dependent on the gender and type of the given location. For feminine countries or continents, use en ("to/in") and de/d' ("from"). Most countries that end in "e" are feminine. All the continents are feminine.


He is going to Brazil

Il va au Brésil

For masculine countries that start with a consonant, use the preposition au ("to/in").


Are you in Ecuador?

Es-tu en Équateur?

For masculine countries that start with a vowel, use the preposition en ("to/in").


My mom is coming back to the United States

Ma mère revient aux États-Unis

For countries with plural names, use the preposition aux ("to/in").


Mexico, Japan, Canada, Brazil, Lebanon, Morocco, Luxembourg, Denmark, Portugal, Senegal, Vietnam

le Mexique, le Japon, le Canada, le Brésil, le Liban, le Maroc, le Luxembourg, le Danemark, le Portugal, le Sénégal, le Viêt Nam

These are masculine countries. They take the prepositions au ("to/in") and du ("from").


Spain, Italy, Germany, China, Russia, Libya, Algeria, Israel, Greece, Turkey, Austria, Egypt, India

l'Espagne, l'Italie, l'Allemagne, la Chine, la Russie, la Lybie, l'Algérie, l'Israël, la Grèce, la Turquie, l'Autriche, l'Égypte, l'Inde

These are feminine countries. They use the prepositions en ("to/in") and de/d' ("from").


the Netherlands, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, Fiji, the Maldives, the Philippines

les Pays-Bas, les Émirats arabes unis, les États-Unis, les Fidji, les Maldives, les Philippines

These are countries with plural names. They use the prepositions aux ("to/in") and des ("from").


Claire just returned from Mexico. She went there with her family

Claire vient de revenir du Mexique. Elle y est allée avec sa famille

Note how le Mexique is an irregular country name in that it ends with an "e" but is masculine.


They live in New York. They are from Haiti

Ils habitent à New York. Ils sont d'Haïti

To say "to" or "in" a city or island, use à. Some islands have plural names, in which case you should use aux.


We are in California

On est en Californie

Feminine states and provinces are rare. They take the preposition en ("to/in").


He is from Quebec. He's going to Vermont

Il est du Québec. Il va dans le Vermont

To say "to" or "in" a masculine state or province, use either au or dans le.


Last week we were in Indiana

La semaine dernière nous étions en Indiana

To say "to" or "in" a masculine state/province beginning with a vowel, use either en or dans l'.


Marie decided to sit close to me

Marie a décidé de s'asseoir auprès de moi

next to, close to/near - auprès de. You could use près de as well. Auprès de can also be used figuratively to say "in the eyes of."


Jean's dog is outside at the moment

Le chien de Jean est dehors en ce moment

outside - dehors, au-dehors. As an alternative you could say à l'extérieur. Also note the common expression en ce moment, "at the moment."


Apart from him, nobody liked the show

En dehors de lui, personne n'a aimé l'émission

apart from - en dehors de, à part. Note that en dehors de can also take a literal meaning -- "outside of."


It's so cold! I'm going to stay inside

Il fait si froid! Je vais rester dedans

inside - dedans, au-dedans. Another alternative would be à l'intérieur.


Among European countries, France is my favorite

Parmi les pays européens, la France est mon pays préféré

among - parmi


The people among whom you lived were funny

Les gens parmi lesquels vous viviez étaient drôles

Recall that the relative pronoun lequel and its variants usually apply to things. After entre and parmi, however, the forms of lequel must be used to refer to people. Qui cannot be used.


As for my work, I'll do it tomorrow

Quant à mon travail, je le ferai demain

as for, as far as - quant à


As far as I'm concerned, it's the year's best novel

En ce qui me concerne, c'est le meilleur roman de l'année

as far as I'm concerned, as for me - en ce qui me concerne, à mon avis. The latter literally means "in my opinion." Other suitable alternatives include pour ma part and d'après/selon moi.


The French are happier compared to Americans

Les Français sont plus heureux par rapport aux Américains

compared to, in relation to - par rapport à. Note that you could also say Les Français sont plus heureux que les Américains.


I started running at a rate of six hours per week

J'ai commencé à courir à raison de six heures par semaine

at a/the rate of - à raison de. Note that the expression en raison de also exists, meaning "on account of" or "because of."


They already told me something about you

Ils m'ont déjà raconté quelque chose à propos de toi

with regard to, about, speaking of - à propos de. Note that a more formal alternative would be Ils m'ont raconté quelque chose à ton propos.


Are you informed (aware) of what happened at the college?

Es-tu au courant de ce qu'il s'est passé à l'université?

(to be/to keep) informed - (être/tenir) au courant. Note that you could also say Es-tu au courant à propos de l'université?


The film's main character is great, especially in terms of his personality

Le personnage principal du film est génial, surtout en ce qui concerne sa personnalité

in terms of - en termes de, en matière de, en ce qui concerne. While it normally has a comparative meaning ("compared to"), the expression par rapport à is used with increasing frequency as a synonym of expressions like en ce qui concerne and à propos de ("in terms of" and "with regard to").


I arrived just a second ago

Je viens d'arriver tout à l'heure

just a second ago; in just a second - tout à l'heure. This expression is used to express that something either has just happened or is about to happen.


See you soon!

À tout à l'heure!

See you soon! - À tout à l'heure!


All of a sudden, they left

Tout à coup, ils sont partis

all of a sudden, suddenly - tout à coup. As an alternative, French speakers often use the expression tout d'un coup, which technically means "all at once" or "in one go."


We were lined up in front of the store

On faisait la queue devant le magasin

to line up, to stand in line - faire la queue


I woke up before sunrise this morning

Je me suis réveillé ce matin avant le lever de soleil

sunrise - le lever de soleil. This noun is formed from the verb "to rise," lever. The feminine noun aube is another word for "sunrise."


I love being outside during sunset

J'adore être dehors pendant le coucher du soleil

sunset - le coucher du soleil. An alternative is the masculine noun crépuscule.


I have gone for my daily walk

Je suis parti faire ma promenade quotidienne

daily, everyday - quotidien. This word is also a masculine noun meaning "daily newspaper."


The bread is in the oven

Le pain est dans le four

an oven - un four. Note that "a microwave (oven)" is un four à micro-ondes, or simply un micro-ondes.


The soup is on the stove

La soupe est sur la cuisinière

a stove - une cuisinière


The dishwasher is next to the oven

Le lave-vaisselle est à côté du four

a dishwasher - un lave-vaisselle


You must cook the fish before eating it

Il faut cuire le poisson avant de le manger

to cook - cuire. This verb refers to the act of heating food, whereas cuisiner refers to the general preparation of food. Also note how de le does not change to du here. This is because le is a direct object pronoun (referring to the fish).


Claire stirred the soup

Claire a remué la soupe

to stir - remuer. Note that you could also use mélanger, which technically means "to mix."


Marc burned the milk by forgetting to stir it

Marc a brûlé le lait en oubliant de le remuer

to burn - brûler


You must boil the water in order to cook the eggs

Il faut faire bouillir l'eau pour cuire les oeufs

to boil - (faire) bouillir. Faire bouillir quelque chose is "to boil something," while bouillir by itself is an intransitive verb: l'eau bout -- "the water boils."


Jean is cooking the eggs in a frying pan

Jean cuit les oeufs dans une poêle

a frying pan - une poêle


You can put the duck into the pot

Tu peux mettre le canard dans la casserole

a pot - une casserole. This term can also be used to mean "pan."


According to the recipe, we do not have enough milk

Selon la recette, on n'a pas assez de lait

a recipe - une recette


Which flavor of ice cream would you like?

Quel parfum de glace aimeriez-vous?

a scent, a flavor - un parfum. Note that parfum also means "perfume."


I just ordered a cheese plate

Je viens de commander une assiette de fromage

a plate - une assiette


Paul put the soup into this bowl

Paul a mis la soupe dans ce bol

a bowl - un bol


I prefer to eat fries with a fork

Je préfère manger les frites avec une fourchette

a fork - une fourchette


He stirred his coffee with a spoon

Il a remué son café avec une cuillère

a spoon - une cuillère