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Flashcards in Lesson 12 Deck (91):

What is the future tense and how do you form it in French?

The future tense is used to indicate upcoming events or actions. In English, its construction is "will + verb."

Forming the future in French is easy. For most verbs, simply add the following endings to the infinitive: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont.


You will call me tomorrow, right?

Tu me téléphoneras demain, oui?

Note the second-person singular future tense of téléphoner. Simply take the infinitive and add the appropriate future ending, -as.


Claire will go back to France in six months

Claire retournera en France dans six mois

Note the third-person singular future tense of retourner. Take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -a.


We will eat the eggs

Nous mangerons les oeufs

Note the first-person plural future tense of manger. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ons.


I will study tomorrow

J'étudierai demain

Note the first-person singular future tense of étudier. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ai.


They will finish their work soon

Ils finiront bientôt leur travail

Note the third-person plural future tense of finir. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ont.


No car will work. We need something bigger

Nulle voiture ne marchera. Il nous faut quelque chose de plus grand

not any, no - nul... ne. Note the feminine form of nul to agree with the noun. You could also say Aucune voiture ne va marcher, which is less formal.


When conjugating the future tense, are all verb stems derived from the infinitive?

No. Certain commonly used verbs (like avoir, être, aller, faire, pouvoir, venir) have irregular stems for the future tense.


We will go to the park today

Aujourd'hui, on ira au parc

Aller does not use its infinitive as a stem in the future tense. Instead, it uses its irregular stem, ir-.


I will be in France next week

Je serai en France la semaine prochaine

The irregular future stem for être is ser-. The infinitive is not used as the stem.


(formal) You will have your chance

Vous aurez votre chance

The irregular future stem for avoir is aur-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Also note that chance is a feminine noun.


It will be cold tomorrow

Il fera froid demain

The irregular future stem for faire is fer-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Recall that faire is used when talking about the weather.


I will have a coffee and a croissant

Je prendrai un café et un croissant

The future stem for prendre is prendr-. It is slightly irregular in that the infinitive is not fully used as the stem: when a verb ends with an "e," the letter is dropped in the future to add the ending. For example, conduire becomes conduir-. All future stems should end with "r."


I will have to sing at the concert

Je devrai chanter au concert

The future stem for devoir is irregular: devr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.


We will see them in two weeks

Nous les verrons dans deux semaines

The future stem for voir is irregular: verr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.


You will come with us this afternoon

Tu viendras avec nous cet après-midi

The future stem for venir is irregular: viendr-.


I will send you a message this afternoon

Je t'enverrai un message cet après-midi

The future stem for envoyer is irregular: enverr-. Also note that message is a masculine noun.


It will rain tomorrow

Il pleuvra demain

The future stem for pleuvoir is irregular: pleuvr-.


Tomorrow I will see my former professor

Demain, je verrai mon ancien professeur

old, former - ancien. The feminine form is ancienne. This adjective takes on this meaning when placed before a noun. When placed after a noun, it literally means "old" or "ancient": un prof ancien means "an aged/old professor."


He will give us his old computer

Il nous donnera son ancien ordinateur

a computer - un ordinateur


He surfs the Internet all day

Il surfe sur Internet pendant toute la journée

to surf (the Internet) - surfer (sur). Note that Internet is a masculine noun.


I want to take pictures of the safari with my digital camera

Je veux prendre des photos du safari avec mon appareil photo numérique

a (digital) camera - un appareil photo (numérique). Note the expression prendre des photos, "to take pictures." Also note that "a video camera" is une caméra (vidéo).


I will show you my video camera the day after tomorrow

Je te montrerai ma caméra après-demain

the day after tomorrow - après-demain


I will get angry if you leave

Je me fâcherai si tu pars

Note how the future tense is used with si ("if") clauses. If the condition in the clause is met, the future is employed to describe what will happen.


If you feed them, the rabbits will grow

Si tu les nourris, les lapins se développeront

Note how the future is used to indicate what will happen if the condition in the initial si clause is met.


When he returns, we will speak to him

Quand il rentrera, nous lui parlerons

The future tense is used after certain conjunctions (like quand) when the main verb's action will take place in the future (in other words, when the action has not yet occurred). In English, the present tense is normally used.


You will see him when/as soon as he arrives

Tu le verras lorsqu'il arrivera

The action following the conjunction (lorsque) has not yet occurred, so the following verb is conjugated in the future. In English, the present is used.


We will start as soon as they arrive

Nous commencerons dès qu'ils arriveront

The future is used after dès que when the action of the verb will take place in the future. The present is normally used in English.


What is the conditional mood and how do you form it in French?

The conditional indicates actions that are not guaranteed to happen -- they are dependent on conditions. In English, its construction is "would + verb."

The most basic form of the conditional is the present conditional. It is formed by adding the endings -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient to the future stem of the verb.


In your position, I would leave

À ta place, je partirais

Note the first-person singular in the present conditional of partir. Simply take the future stem (in this case, the infinitive) of the verb and add the appropriate ending, -ais. Also note the use of the feminine noun place to mean "position" or "situation."


Would you help me?

Est-ce que tu m'aiderais?

Note the second-person singular in the present conditional of aider. Take the future stem of the verb and add the proper ending, -ais.


He would swim, but it's too cold

Il nagerait, mais il fait trop froid

Note the third-person singular in the present conditional of nager. Take the future stem (in this case, the infinitive) of the verb and add the appropriate ending, -ait.


We would eat in that case

Nous mangerions dans ce cas-là

in that case - dans ce cas-là. Note the first-person plural in the present conditional of manger.


(formal) You would like this novel

Vous aimeriez ce roman

Note the second-person plural in the present conditional of aimer.


They would be happy to go with you

Ils seraient heureux d'aller avec toi

Note the third-person plural in the present conditional of être, which has an irregular stem just like in the future tense.


I would go to the store but it's closed

J'irais au magasin mais il est fermé

Recall that aller has an irregular stem, which is used in both the future and present conditional.


They say (that) they will come

Ils disent qu'ils viendront

In indirect discourse, the future is used when the verb in the main clause is in the present tense.


She asked me if you would come

Elle m'a demandé si tu viendrais

In indirect discourse, the conditional is used when the verb in the main clause is in the past tense (either the passé composé or the imperfect).


We would stay at home. We should stay at home

Nous resterions à la maison. Nous devrions rester à la maison

Note how in the present conditional, the verb devoir indicates obligation or necessity; it is best translated as "should" rather than "would."


If you finish your work, I will give you the present. If you have finished your work, I am going to give you the present

Si tu finis ton travail, je te donnerai le cadeau. Si tu as fini ton travail, je vais te donner le cadeau

If a si clause is in the present or passé composé, the main verb can be in either the present, future, or imperative.


If I had the time, I would give him the book

Si j'avais le temps, je lui donnerais le livre

If a si clause is in the imperfect tense, the main verb should be in the present conditional. Constructions like this indicate what would happen (present conditional) if something else happened (imperfect). In other words, the conditions are presented in the imperfect.


If you call him he will come

Si vous l'appelez il viendra

Notice how the si clause is in the present, which means the main verb can be in either the future or the present.


We would read more if we had the time

Nous lirions plus si nous avions le temps

Note the first-person plural in the present conditional of lire. The si clause is in the imperfect, which means the main verb must be in the conditional.


If my brother were there, he would know what to do

Si mon frère était là, il saurait quoi faire

Note that the future/conditional stem for savoir is saur-. Savoir is conjugated in the conditional because the si clause is in the imperfect.


She won't go in case he comes

Elle n'ira pas dans le cas où il viendrait

in case - au cas où, dans le cas où. These conjunctive phrases are usually followed by the conditional.


She is so smart

Elle est si intelligente

so - si


She wasn't as athletic as she thought

Elle n'était pas si athlétique qu'elle pensait

that, as - si. Note the use here of si in a comparison.


It wasn't that hard

Ce n'était pas si difficile

that, as - si. Another way of putting this is "It wasn't as hard as that."


We are going to stop even if she doesn't come

Nous allons arrêter même si elle ne vient pas

even if - même si


He acted as if there was nothing weird going on

Il se comportait comme s'il ne se passait rien de bizarre

as if, as though - comme si. Note how si is shortened to s' before il.


If only I were taller!

Si j'étais plus grand!

The imperfect tense can be paired with si to express suggestions or wishes. Another example: Et si on sortait ce soir? means "What if we went out tonight?"


Why don't we leave tomorrow? / What if we left tomorrow?

Et si on partait demain?

how about, what if - et si. This construction is used at the beginning of suggestive questions posed in the imperfect.


We would like to go to the park

Nous voudrions aller au parc

The irregular future/conditional stem for vouloir is voudr-. Note how the conditional is used for requests, desires, or commands. Using the conditional for these purposes is polite and serves to soften the statement.


(formal) Would you be able to help me tomorrow?

Pourriez-vous m'aider demain?

The irregular future/conditional stem for pouvoir is pourr-. Also note how the conditional is used here to soften a request. Another translation of this question is simply, "Could you help me tomorrow?"


I would like some bread

Je voudrais du pain

The verb vouloir is often used in the conditional to politely request something. It's softer than "I want some bread."


I would like to go to Paris, but I can't

J'aimerais aller à Paris, mais je ne peux pas

The verb aimer is often used in the conditional to indicate a desire.


(formal) Could you (possibly) direct us toward the dining room?

Sauriez-vous nous diriger vers la salle à manger?

Savoir can be used in the conditional for formal requests of a person's knowledge. In this context, it is like pouvoir in that it means "to be able to."


Jean is the head of the family

Jean est à la tête de la famille

a head - une tête. Note the expression être à la tête, which means "to lead" or "to head."


He closed his eyes

Il a fermé les yeux

eyes - les yeux. Definite articles are typically used with body parts (instead of possessive adjectives). In this case, les is used instead of ses. The singular form is un oeil. Finally, note that the expression "in the eyes of" is translated by aux yeux de.


She washes her hands

Elle se lave les mains

a hand - une main. Reflexive verbs are frequently used with body parts.


I'm combing my hair because I have to go to work

Je me peigne les cheveux parce que je dois aller au travail

to comb one's hair - se peigner les cheveux


My head hurts

J'ai mal à la tête

to hurt - avoir mal. Note that avoir mal is used when something is hurting, whereas the action of causing pain is expressed with faire mal.


He was so tall that he hit his head on the ceiling

Il était si grand qu'il s'est cogné la tête contre le plafond

to hit (body part on something) - se cogner (quelque chose contre quelque chose)


My teeth hurt!

J'ai mal aux dents!

teeth - les dents. This is a feminine noun.


Marie brushes her teeth every morning

Marie se brosse les dents chaque matin

to brush one's teeth - se brosser les dents. Se brosser by itself means "to brush (oneself)."


Why is he raising his hand?

Pourquoi lève-t-il la main?

to raise, to rise - lever. Recall that the reflexive se lever means "to get up."


She brushed herself. She brushed her teeth. She brushed them

Elle s'est brossée. Elle s'est brossé les dents. Elle se les est brossées

In the first sentence, the reflexive pronoun s' is the direct object, so the participle brossée agrees with it. In the second sentence, the reflexive pronoun is no longer the direct object, so there is no agreement (brossé). In the third sentence, les dents (a feminine plural noun) is replaced by the object pronoun les, which serves as the preceding direct object, so the participle agrees.


He's going to get his feet dirty

Il va se salir les pieds

a foot - un pied. Recall that possessive adjectives are almost never used when talking about body parts.


He broke the guitar by throwing it

Il a cassé la guitare en la jetant

to throw - lancer, jeter. Note that jeter often means "to throw away." Also recall the use of the gerund to say "by ___ing."


I broke my leg

Je me suis cassé la jambe

a leg - une jambe. Note how casser requires a reflexive pronoun in this context.


She has really long fingers

Elle a les doigts très longs

a finger - un doigt. Note that you could also say Ses doigts sont très longs -- "Her fingers are very long."


She only has nine toes

Elle n'a que neuf orteils

a toe - un orteil


My uncle has the world's biggest nose

Mon oncle a le plus grand nez du monde

the nose - le nez. Note that you could change the order and say Il a le nez le plus grand du monde.


You have to close your mouth while eating

Il faut fermer la bouche en mangeant

the mouth - la bouche


Vegetables are good for one's health

Les légumes sont bons pour la santé

health - la santé


I feel sick

Je me sens mal

to feel sick - se sentir mal


Her son is very sick

Son fils est très malade

sick, ill - malade. This word can be used as a noun, meaning "a patient" or "a sick person." Also note that "to become sick" is tomber malade.


Jean and Marie have the same illness

Jean et Marie ont la même maladie

a sickness, an illness - une maladie


You had a pain in your arm

Tu as eu une douleur au bras

pain - la douleur. Note the masculine noun for "arm," bras, as well as the construction douleur à...


He sleeps flat on his stomach

Il dort à plat ventre

the belly, the stomach - le ventre, l'estomac. Note that "to have a stomach ache" is avoir mal au ventre.


His neck hurts

Son cou lui fait mal

the neck - le cou. Note that "the throat" is la gorge.


I will get a new cell phone this afternoon; I just broke the old one

J'achèterai un nouveau portable cet après-midi; je viens de casser l'ancien

a cell phone - un (téléphone) portable. Note that acheter has a slightly irregular stem in the future and conditional: achèter-.


I need a new laptop

J'ai besoin d'un nouvel ordinateur portable

a laptop - un (ordinateur) portable. Recall that nouveau becomes nouvel when it is followed by a vowel sound.


Hold on, I'll turn up the volume

Deux secondes, j'augmenterai le volume

volume - le volume. Note how augmenter, "to increase," is used here. You can also say monter le son, "turn up the sound." (For the opposite action, use baisser le son.) Finally, deux secondes is a common expression, meaning "hold on" or "one sec."


On one hand, we can wait until tomorrow. On the other, tonight would be fun

D'une part, on peut attendre jusqu'à demain. De l'autre, ce soir serait bien amusant

on one hand... on the other - d'une part... de l'autre. An alternative is the construction d'un côté... de l'autre.


Do you have the means to bring a car?

As-tu moyen d'amener une voiture?

to have a way/the means to - avoir (un) moyen de


We had the chance to take one of the college's best courses

Nous avons eu l'occasion de suivre l'un des meilleurs cours de l'université

to have the chance to - avoir l'occasion de. Note how un becomes l'un here. This is a common practice, usually done when un is used as a pronoun.


Yes but that had nothing to do with his trip to Paris

Oui mais cela n'avait rien à voir avec son voyage à Paris

(to have) nothing to do with - (n'avoir) rien à voir avec


She wants to watch TV instead of going to the movies

Elle veut regarder la télé au lieu d'aller au cinéma

instead of, in place of - au lieu de, plutôt que, à la place de


The list is very suitable to us

La liste nous convient très bien

to suit, to be suitable to - convenir à. Note the feminine noun liste.


Yes, indeed I adore her as an actress

Oui, effectivement je l'adore en tant qu'actrice

as - en tant que. Note the adverb effectivement, which means "actually" or "indeed." An alternative to effectivement is en effet.