What is the future tense and how do you form it in French?
The future tense is used to indicate upcoming events or actions. In English, its construction is "will + verb."
Forming the future in French is easy. For most verbs, simply add the following endings to the infinitive: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont.
You will call me tomorrow, right?
Tu me téléphoneras demain, oui?
Note the second-person singular future tense of téléphoner. Simply take the infinitive and add the appropriate future ending, -as.
Claire will go back to France in six months
Claire retournera en France dans six mois
Note the third-person singular future tense of retourner. Take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -a.
We will eat the eggs
Nous mangerons les oeufs
Note the first-person plural future tense of manger. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ons.
I will study tomorrow
Note the first-person singular future tense of étudier. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ai.
They will finish their work soon
Ils finiront bientôt leur travail
Note the third-person plural future tense of finir. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ont.
No car will work. We need something bigger
Nulle voiture ne marchera. Il nous faut quelque chose de plus grand
not any, no - nul... ne. Note the feminine form of nul to agree with the noun. You could also say Aucune voiture ne va marcher, which is less formal.
When conjugating the future tense, are all verb stems derived from the infinitive?
No. Certain commonly used verbs (like avoir, être, aller, faire, pouvoir, venir) have irregular stems for the future tense.
We will go to the park today
Aujourd'hui, on ira au parc
Aller does not use its infinitive as a stem in the future tense. Instead, it uses its irregular stem, ir-.
I will be in France next week
Je serai en France la semaine prochaine
The irregular future stem for être is ser-. The infinitive is not used as the stem.
(formal) You will have your chance
Vous aurez votre chance
The irregular future stem for avoir is aur-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Also note that chance is a feminine noun.
It will be cold tomorrow
Il fera froid demain
The irregular future stem for faire is fer-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Recall that faire is used when talking about the weather.
I will have a coffee and a croissant
Je prendrai un café et un croissant
The future stem for prendre is prendr-. It is slightly irregular in that the infinitive is not fully used as the stem: when a verb ends with an "e," the letter is dropped in the future to add the ending. For example, conduire becomes conduir-. All future stems should end with "r."
I will have to sing at the concert
Je devrai chanter au concert
The future stem for devoir is irregular: devr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.
We will see them in two weeks
Nous les verrons dans deux semaines
The future stem for voir is irregular: verr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.
You will come with us this afternoon
Tu viendras avec nous cet après-midi
The future stem for venir is irregular: viendr-.
I will send you a message this afternoon
Je t'enverrai un message cet après-midi
The future stem for envoyer is irregular: enverr-. Also note that message is a masculine noun.
It will rain tomorrow
Il pleuvra demain
The future stem for pleuvoir is irregular: pleuvr-.
Tomorrow I will see my former professor
Demain, je verrai mon ancien professeur
old, former - ancien. The feminine form is ancienne. This adjective takes on this meaning when placed before a noun. When placed after a noun, it literally means "old" or "ancient": un prof ancien means "an aged/old professor."
He will give us his old computer
Il nous donnera son ancien ordinateur
a computer - un ordinateur
He surfs the Internet all day
Il surfe sur Internet pendant toute la journée
to surf (the Internet) - surfer (sur). Note that Internet is a masculine noun.
I want to take pictures of the safari with my digital camera
Je veux prendre des photos du safari avec mon appareil photo numérique
a (digital) camera - un appareil photo (numérique). Note the expression prendre des photos, "to take pictures." Also note that "a video camera" is une caméra (vidéo).
I will show you my video camera the day after tomorrow
Je te montrerai ma caméra après-demain
the day after tomorrow - après-demain
I will get angry if you leave
Je me fâcherai si tu pars
Note how the future tense is used with si ("if") clauses. If the condition in the clause is met, the future is employed to describe what will happen.
If you feed them, the rabbits will grow
Si tu les nourris, les lapins se développeront
Note how the future is used to indicate what will happen if the condition in the initial si clause is met.
When he returns, we will speak to him
Quand il rentrera, nous lui parlerons
The future tense is used after certain conjunctions (like quand) when the main verb's action will take place in the future (in other words, when the action has not yet occurred). In English, the present tense is normally used.
You will see him when/as soon as he arrives
Tu le verras lorsqu'il arrivera
The action following the conjunction (lorsque) has not yet occurred, so the following verb is conjugated in the future. In English, the present is used.
We will start as soon as they arrive
Nous commencerons dès qu'ils arriveront
The future is used after dès que when the action of the verb will take place in the future. The present is normally used in English.
What is the conditional mood and how do you form it in French?
The conditional indicates actions that are not guaranteed to happen -- they are dependent on conditions. In English, its construction is "would + verb."
The most basic form of the conditional is the present conditional. It is formed by adding the endings -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient to the future stem of the verb.
In your position, I would leave
À ta place, je partirais
Note the first-person singular in the present conditional of partir. Simply take the future stem (in this case, the infinitive) of the verb and add the appropriate ending, -ais. Also note the use of the feminine noun place to mean "position" or "situation."