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Flashcards in Lesson 12 Deck (91)
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1
Q

What is the future tense and how do you form it in French?

A

The future tense is used to indicate upcoming events or actions. In English, its construction is "will + verb."

Forming the future in French is easy. For most verbs, simply add the following endings to the infinitive: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont.

2
Q

Translate to French:

You will call me tomorrow, right?

A

Tu me téléphoneras demain, oui?

Note the second-person singular future tense of téléphoner. Simply take the infinitive and add the appropriate future ending, -as.

3
Q

Translate to French:

Claire will go back to France in six months

A

Claire retournera en France dans six mois

Note the third-person singular future tense of retourner. Take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -a.

4
Q

Translate to French:

We will eat the eggs

A

Nous mangerons les oeufs

Note the first-person plural future tense of manger. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ons.

5
Q

Translate to French:

I will study tomorrow

A

J'étudierai demain

Note the first-person singular future tense of étudier. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ai.

6
Q

Translate to French:

They will finish their work soon

A

Ils finiront bientôt leur travail

Note the third-person plural future tense of finir. Simply take the infinitive and add the proper ending, -ont.

7
Q

Translate to French:

No car will work. We need something bigger

A

Nulle voiture ne marchera. Il nous faut quelque chose de plus grand

not any, no - nul... ne. Note the feminine form of nul to agree with the noun. You could also say Aucune voiture ne va marcher, which is less formal.

8
Q

When conjugating the future tense, are all verb stems derived from the infinitive?

A

No. Certain commonly used verbs (like avoir, être, aller, faire, pouvoir, venir) have irregular stems for the future tense.

9
Q

Translate to French:

We will go to the park today

A

Aujourd'hui, on ira au parc

Aller does not use its infinitive as a stem in the future tense. Instead, it uses its irregular stem, ir-.

10
Q

Translate to French:

I will be in France next week

A

Je serai en France la semaine prochaine

The irregular future stem for être is ser-. The infinitive is not used as the stem.

11
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) You will have your chance

A

Vous aurez votre chance

The irregular future stem for avoir is aur-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Also note that chance is a feminine noun.

12
Q

Translate to French:

It will be cold tomorrow

A

Il fera froid demain

The irregular future stem for faire is fer-. The infinitive is not used as the stem. Recall that faire is used when talking about the weather.

13
Q

Translate to French:

I will have a coffee and a croissant

A

Je prendrai un café et un croissant

The future stem for prendre is prendr-. It is slightly irregular in that the infinitive is not fully used as the stem: when a verb ends with an "e," the letter is dropped in the future to add the ending. For example, conduire becomes conduir-. All future stems should end with "r."

14
Q

Translate to French:

I will have to sing at the concert

A

Je devrai chanter au concert

The future stem for devoir is irregular: devr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.

15
Q

Translate to French:

We will see them in two weeks

A

Nous les verrons dans deux semaines

The future stem for voir is irregular: verr-. The infinitive is not used as its stem.

16
Q

Translate to French:

You will come with us this afternoon

A

Tu viendras avec nous cet après-midi

The future stem for venir is irregular: viendr-.

17
Q

Translate to French:

I will send you a message this afternoon

A

Je t'enverrai un message cet après-midi

The future stem for envoyer is irregular: enverr-. Also note that message is a masculine noun.

18
Q

Translate to French:

It will rain tomorrow

A

Il pleuvra demain

The future stem for pleuvoir is irregular: pleuvr-.

19
Q

Translate to French:

Tomorrow I will see my former professor

A

Demain, je verrai mon ancien professeur

old, former - ancien. The feminine form is ancienne. This adjective takes on this meaning when placed before a noun. When placed after a noun, it literally means "old" or "ancient": un prof ancien means "an aged/old professor."

20
Q

Translate to French:

He will give us his old computer

A

Il nous donnera son ancien ordinateur

a computer - un ordinateur

21
Q

Translate to French:

He surfs the Internet all day

A

Il surfe sur Internet pendant toute la journée

to surf (the Internet) - surfer (sur). Note that Internet is a masculine noun.

22
Q

Translate to French:

I want to take pictures of the safari with my digital camera

A

Je veux prendre des photos du safari avec mon appareil photo numérique

a (digital) camera - un appareil photo (numérique). Note the expression prendre des photos, "to take pictures." Also note that "a video camera" is une caméra (vidéo).

23
Q

Translate to French:

I will show you my video camera the day after tomorrow

A

Je te montrerai ma caméra après-demain

the day after tomorrow - après-demain

24
Q

Translate to French:

I will get angry if you leave

A

Je me fâcherai si tu pars

Note how the future tense is used with si ("if") clauses. If the condition in the clause is met, the future is employed to describe what will happen.

25
Q

Translate to French:

If you feed them, the rabbits will grow

A

Si tu les nourris, les lapins se développeront

Note how the future is used to indicate what will happen if the condition in the initial si clause is met.

26
Q

Translate to French:

When he returns, we will speak to him

A

Quand il rentrera, nous lui parlerons

The future tense is used after certain conjunctions (like quand) when the main verb's action will take place in the future (in other words, when the action has not yet occurred). In English, the present tense is normally used.

27
Q

Translate to French:

You will see him when/as soon as he arrives

A

Tu le verras lorsqu'il arrivera

The action following the conjunction (lorsque) has not yet occurred, so the following verb is conjugated in the future. In English, the present is used.

28
Q

Translate to French:

We will start as soon as they arrive

A

Nous commencerons dès qu'ils arriveront

The future is used after dès que when the action of the verb will take place in the future. The present is normally used in English.

29
Q

What is the conditional mood and how do you form it in French?

A

The conditional indicates actions that are not guaranteed to happen -- they are dependent on conditions. In English, its construction is "would + verb."

The most basic form of the conditional is the present conditional. It is formed by adding the endings -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient to the future stem of the verb.

30
Q

Translate to French:

In your position, I would leave

A

À ta place, je partirais

Note the first-person singular in the present conditional of partir. Simply take the future stem (in this case, the infinitive) of the verb and add the appropriate ending, -ais. Also note the use of the feminine noun place to mean "position" or "situation."

31
Q

Translate to French:

Would you help me?

A

Est-ce que tu m'aiderais?

Note the second-person singular in the present conditional of aider. Take the future stem of the verb and add the proper ending, -ais.

32
Q

Translate to French:

He would swim, but it's too cold

A

Il nagerait, mais il fait trop froid

Note the third-person singular in the present conditional of nager. Take the future stem (in this case, the infinitive) of the verb and add the appropriate ending, -ait.

33
Q

Translate to French:

We would eat in that case

A

Nous mangerions dans ce cas-là

in that case - dans ce cas-là. Note the first-person plural in the present conditional of manger.

34
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) You would like this novel

A

Vous aimeriez ce roman

Note the second-person plural in the present conditional of aimer.

35
Q

Translate to French:

They would be happy to go with you

A

Ils seraient heureux d'aller avec toi

Note the third-person plural in the present conditional of être, which has an irregular stem just like in the future tense.

36
Q

Translate to French:

I would go to the store but it's closed

A

J'irais au magasin mais il est fermé

Recall that aller has an irregular stem, which is used in both the future and present conditional.

37
Q

Translate to French:

They say (that) they will come

A

Ils disent qu'ils viendront

In indirect discourse, the future is used when the verb in the main clause is in the present tense.

38
Q

Translate to French:

She asked me if you would come

A

Elle m'a demandé si tu viendrais

In indirect discourse, the conditional is used when the verb in the main clause is in the past tense (either the passé composé or the imperfect).

39
Q

Translate to French:

We would stay at home. We should stay at home

A

Nous resterions à la maison. Nous devrions rester à la maison

Note how in the present conditional, the verb devoir indicates obligation or necessity; it is best translated as "should" rather than "would."

40
Q

Translate to French:

If you finish your work, I will give you the present. If you have finished your work, I am going to give you the present

A

Si tu finis ton travail, je te donnerai le cadeau. Si tu as fini ton travail, je vais te donner le cadeau

If a si clause is in the present or passé composé, the main verb can be in either the present, future, or imperative.

41
Q

Translate to French:

If I had the time, I would give him the book

A

Si j'avais le temps, je lui donnerais le livre

If a si clause is in the imperfect tense, the main verb should be in the present conditional. Constructions like this indicate what would happen (present conditional) if something else happened (imperfect). In other words, the conditions are presented in the imperfect.

42
Q

Translate to French:

If you call him he will come

A

Si vous l'appelez il viendra

Notice how the si clause is in the present, which means the main verb can be in either the future or the present.

43
Q

Translate to French:

We would read more if we had the time

A

Nous lirions plus si nous avions le temps

Note the first-person plural in the present conditional of lire. The si clause is in the imperfect, which means the main verb must be in the conditional.

44
Q

Translate to French:

If my brother were there, he would know what to do

A

Si mon frère était là, il saurait quoi faire

Note that the future/conditional stem for savoir is saur-. Savoir is conjugated in the conditional because the si clause is in the imperfect.

45
Q

Translate to French:

She won't go in case he comes

A

Elle n'ira pas dans le cas où il viendrait

in case - au cas où, dans le cas où. These conjunctive phrases are usually followed by the conditional.

46
Q

Translate to French:

She is so smart

A

Elle est si intelligente

so - si

47
Q

Translate to French:

She wasn't as athletic as she thought

A

Elle n'était pas si athlétique qu'elle pensait

that, as - si. Note the use here of si in a comparison.

48
Q

Translate to French:

It wasn't that hard

A

Ce n'était pas si difficile

that, as - si. Another way of putting this is "It wasn't as hard as that."

49
Q

Translate to French:

We are going to stop even if she doesn't come

A

Nous allons arrêter même si elle ne vient pas

even if - même si

50
Q

Translate to French:

He acted as if there was nothing weird going on

A

Il se comportait comme s'il ne se passait rien de bizarre

as if, as though - comme si. Note how si is shortened to s' before il.

51
Q

Translate to French:

If only I were taller!

A

Si j'étais plus grand!

The imperfect tense can be paired with si to express suggestions or wishes. Another example: Et si on sortait ce soir? means "What if we went out tonight?"

52
Q

Translate to French:

Why don't we leave tomorrow? / What if we left tomorrow?

A

Et si on partait demain?

how about, what if - et si. This construction is used at the beginning of suggestive questions posed in the imperfect.

53
Q

Translate to French:

We would like to go to the park

A

Nous voudrions aller au parc

The irregular future/conditional stem for vouloir is voudr-. Note how the conditional is used for requests, desires, or commands. Using the conditional for these purposes is polite and serves to soften the statement.

54
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) Would you be able to help me tomorrow?

A

Pourriez-vous m'aider demain?

The irregular future/conditional stem for pouvoir is pourr-. Also note how the conditional is used here to soften a request. Another translation of this question is simply, "Could you help me tomorrow?"

55
Q

Translate to French:

I would like some bread

A

Je voudrais du pain

The verb vouloir is often used in the conditional to politely request something. It's softer than "I want some bread."

56
Q

Translate to French:

I would like to go to Paris, but I can't

A

J'aimerais aller à Paris, mais je ne peux pas

The verb aimer is often used in the conditional to indicate a desire.

57
Q

Translate to French:

(formal) Could you (possibly) direct us toward the dining room?

A

Sauriez-vous nous diriger vers la salle à manger?

Savoir can be used in the conditional for formal requests of a person's knowledge. In this context, it is like pouvoir in that it means "to be able to."

58
Q

Translate to French:

Jean is the head of the family

A

Jean est à la tête de la famille

a head - une tête. Note the expression être à la tête, which means "to lead" or "to head."

59
Q

Translate to French:

He closed his eyes

A

Il a fermé les yeux

eyes - les yeux. Definite articles are typically used with body parts (instead of possessive adjectives). In this case, les is used instead of ses. The singular form is un oeil. Finally, note that the expression "in the eyes of" is translated by aux yeux de.

60
Q

Translate to French:

She washes her hands

A

Elle se lave les mains

a hand - une main. Reflexive verbs are frequently used with body parts.

61
Q

Translate to French:

I'm combing my hair because I have to go to work

A

Je me peigne les cheveux parce que je dois aller au travail

to comb one's hair - se peigner les cheveux

62
Q

Translate to French:

My head hurts

A

J'ai mal à la tête

to hurt - avoir mal. Note that avoir mal is used when something is hurting, whereas the action of causing pain is expressed with faire mal.

63
Q

Translate to French:

He was so tall that he hit his head on the ceiling

A

Il était si grand qu'il s'est cogné la tête contre le plafond

to hit (body part on something) - se cogner (quelque chose contre quelque chose)

64
Q

Translate to French:

My teeth hurt!

A

J'ai mal aux dents!

teeth - les dents. This is a feminine noun.

65
Q

Translate to French:

Marie brushes her teeth every morning

A

Marie se brosse les dents chaque matin

to brush one's teeth - se brosser les dents. Se brosser by itself means "to brush (oneself)."

66
Q

Translate to French:

Why is he raising his hand?

A

Pourquoi lève-t-il la main?

to raise, to rise - lever. Recall that the reflexive se lever means "to get up."

67
Q

Translate to French:

She brushed herself. She brushed her teeth. She brushed them

A

Elle s'est brossée. Elle s'est brossé les dents. Elle se les est brossées

In the first sentence, the reflexive pronoun s' is the direct object, so the participle brossée agrees with it. In the second sentence, the reflexive pronoun is no longer the direct object, so there is no agreement (brossé). In the third sentence, les dents (a feminine plural noun) is replaced by the object pronoun les, which serves as the preceding direct object, so the participle agrees.

68
Q

Translate to French:

He's going to get his feet dirty

A

Il va se salir les pieds

a foot - un pied. Recall that possessive adjectives are almost never used when talking about body parts.

69
Q

Translate to French:

He broke the guitar by throwing it

A

Il a cassé la guitare en la jetant

to throw - lancer, jeter. Note that jeter often means "to throw away." Also recall the use of the gerund to say "by ___ing."

70
Q

Translate to French:

I broke my leg

A

Je me suis cassé la jambe

a leg - une jambe. Note how casser requires a reflexive pronoun in this context.

71
Q

Translate to French:

She has really long fingers

A

Elle a les doigts très longs

a finger - un doigt. Note that you could also say Ses doigts sont très longs -- "Her fingers are very long."

72
Q

Translate to French:

She only has nine toes

A

Elle n'a que neuf orteils

a toe - un orteil

73
Q

Translate to French:

My uncle has the world's biggest nose

A

Mon oncle a le plus grand nez du monde

the nose - le nez. Note that you could change the order and say Il a le nez le plus grand du monde.

74
Q

Translate to French:

You have to close your mouth while eating

A

Il faut fermer la bouche en mangeant

the mouth - la bouche

75
Q

Translate to French:

Vegetables are good for one's health

A

Les légumes sont bons pour la santé

health - la santé

76
Q

Translate to French:

I feel sick

A

Je me sens mal

to feel sick - se sentir mal

77
Q

Translate to French:

Her son is very sick

A

Son fils est très malade

sick, ill - malade. This word can be used as a noun, meaning "a patient" or "a sick person." Also note that "to become sick" is tomber malade.

78
Q

Translate to French:

Jean and Marie have the same illness

A

Jean et Marie ont la même maladie

a sickness, an illness - une maladie

79
Q

Translate to French:

You had a pain in your arm

A

Tu as eu une douleur au bras

pain - la douleur. Note the masculine noun for "arm," bras, as well as the construction douleur à...

80
Q

Translate to French:

He sleeps flat on his stomach

A

Il dort à plat ventre

the belly, the stomach - le ventre, l'estomac. Note that "to have a stomach ache" is avoir mal au ventre.

81
Q

Translate to French:

His neck hurts

A

Son cou lui fait mal

the neck - le cou. Note that "the throat" is la gorge.

82
Q

Translate to French:

I will get a new cell phone this afternoon; I just broke the old one

A

J'achèterai un nouveau portable cet après-midi; je viens de casser l'ancien

a cell phone - un (téléphone) portable. Note that acheter has a slightly irregular stem in the future and conditional: achèter-.

83
Q

Translate to French:

I need a new laptop

A

J'ai besoin d'un nouvel ordinateur portable

a laptop - un (ordinateur) portable. Recall that nouveau becomes nouvel when it is followed by a vowel sound.

84
Q

Translate to French:

Hold on, I'll turn up the volume

A

Deux secondes, j'augmenterai le volume

volume - le volume. Note how augmenter, "to increase," is used here. You can also say monter le son, "turn up the sound." (For the opposite action, use baisser le son.) Finally, deux secondes is a common expression, meaning "hold on" or "one sec."

85
Q

Translate to French:

On one hand, we can wait until tomorrow. On the other, tonight would be fun

A

D'une part, on peut attendre jusqu'à demain. De l'autre, ce soir serait bien amusant

on one hand... on the other - d'une part... de l'autre. An alternative is the construction d'un côté... de l'autre.

86
Q

Translate to French:

Do you have the means to bring a car?

A

As-tu moyen d'amener une voiture?

to have a way/the means to - avoir (un) moyen de

87
Q

Translate to French:

We had the chance to take one of the college's best courses

A

Nous avons eu l'occasion de suivre l'un des meilleurs cours de l'université

to have the chance to - avoir l'occasion de. Note how un becomes l'un here. This is a common practice, usually done when un is used as a pronoun.

88
Q

Translate to French:

Yes but that had nothing to do with his trip to Paris

A

Oui mais cela n'avait rien à voir avec son voyage à Paris

(to have) nothing to do with - (n'avoir) rien à voir avec

89
Q

Translate to French:

She wants to watch TV instead of going to the movies

A

Elle veut regarder la télé au lieu d'aller au cinéma

instead of, in place of - au lieu de, plutôt que, à la place de

90
Q

Translate to French:

The list is very suitable to us

A

La liste nous convient très bien

to suit, to be suitable to - convenir à. Note the feminine noun liste.

91
Q

Translate to French:

Yes, indeed I adore her as an actress

A

Oui, effectivement je l'adore en tant qu'actrice

as - en tant que. Note the adverb effectivement, which means "actually" or "indeed." An alternative to effectivement is en effet.