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Flashcards in Lesson 9 Deck (129)

I won't go to Marc's if you don't want to come with me

Je ne vais pas aller chez Marc si tu ne veux pas venir avec moi

if - si. Si is a common word that is used both as an adverb and a conjunction. It can take on other meanings like "so": elle est si intelligente means "she is so smart." You can also use si as an affirmative response to a negative question.


He isn't coming? Yes (he is)

Il ne vient pas? Si (il vient)

yes - si. Note how si is used here as an affirmative response to a negative question.


Can you check if the service is included?

Peux-tu vérifier si le service est compris?

to check - vérifier


I forgot to buy a new jacket

J'ai oublié d'acheter une nouvelle veste

to forget - oublier. Note how de follows oublier when preceding another verb.


Maurice's baby hit me!

Le bébé de Maurice m'a frappé!

to hit - frapper


It hit me straight in the face

Ça m'a frappé en pleine figure

right/straight in the face - en pleine figure


What are impersonal verbs?

Impersonal verbs do not change based on grammatical person. Instead, they are conjugated only in the third-person singular, with the indefinite il. Pleuvoir (to rain) and neiger (to snow) are examples of impersonal verbs. (e.g. A person cannot rain.)


I sometimes forget to eat

Il m'arrive d'oublier de manger

to be possible, to happen - arriver (impersonal). Note the impersonal use of arriver here: il m'arrive, where the speaker (m') is the indirect object, essentially means "it happens (on occasion) to me."


One (we) must make dinner / Dinner has to be made

Il faut faire à manger

must, have to, need to - falloir (with infinitive). This is an impersonal verb; it is only conjugated with il. Note the construction il faut + infinitive, which is common. You could also say On doit faire à manger.


I have to go to school

Il me faut aller à l'école

Note how object pronouns can be used with the impersonal il faut. This construction is rare compared to alternatives like Je dois aller à l'école.


New York is a huge city

New York est une ville immense

a city - une ville. Note the use of immense to mean "huge." Énorme could also work.


We have to be at the airport in two hours

Nous devons être à l'aéroport en deux heures

an airport - un aéroport


I'm late because I just got back from the airport

Je suis en retard car je viens de revenir de l'aéroport

to have just (done something) - venir de + infinitive. This construction is very common and serves to describe a recently completed action.


Julie just bought an apartment in New York

Julie vient d'acheter un appartement à New York

an apartment - un appartement


This building has been here for 100 years

Cet immeuble est ici depuis 100 ans

a building - un bâtiment, un immeuble. The former typically applies to buildings of all kinds, while the latter applies to multi-story buildings.


This skyscraper has 100 floors

Ce gratte-ciel a 100 étages

a skyscraper - un gratte-ciel. This is an invariable noun, which means its plural form doesn't take an "s."


Is the Paris subway well known?

Le métro parisien est-il bien connu?

the subway - le métro. Note that "to take the subway" is prendre le métro, while "a subway station" is une station de métro.


He is getting off at the next stop

Il descend au prochain arrêt

a bus/train/subway stop - un arrêt


We need to buy three tickets

Nous devons acheter trois billets

a ticket (for transportation) - un billet, un ticket. The former is more general -- it also applies to tickets for a show -- but is likely to apply to planes and trains. The latter frequently applies to trams or subways.


You must keep your ticket until the end of the trip

Il faut garder ton billet jusqu'à la fin du voyage

to keep - garder


Paul just missed the train

Paul vient de rater le train

to miss - rater. This verb applies typically to modes of transportation. A different verb (manquer) is used more generally: it can mean "to miss" other things (like meetings), "to fail to meet," and "to miss/long for" people.


She failed her exams

Elle a raté ses examens

to fail (to not pass) - rater. This verb can mean both "to fail" and "to miss." Another verb, échouer, means "to fail" in a broader sense -- "to not succeed." For example, le plan a échoué means "the plan failed."


There are a lot of cars on the street

Il y a beaucoup de voitures dans la rue

a street - une rue. Note that dans is used to say "on" or "in" the street.


I don't see the store on this boulevard

Je ne vois pas le magasin sur ce boulevard

a boulevard - un boulevard. Note that sur is used to say "on" or "in" the boulevard.


They will see us on the avenue in 15 minutes

Ils vont nous voir sur l'avenue dans 15 minutes

an avenue - une avenue. Note that sur is used to say "on" or "in" the avenue.


Did he already cross the street?

A-t-il déjà traversé la rue?

to cross - traverser, croiser


This bridge crosses the Seine

Ce pont traverse la Seine

a bridge - un pont


It will take at least 5 minutes to cross the bridge

Ça va prendre au moins 5 minutes pour traverser le pont

at least - au moins, au minimum. Another possible translation is Le pont met 5 minutes à traverser.


The park is close to the Hudson River

Le parc est près du fleuve Hudson

a river - une rivière, un fleuve


I decided to take a taxi

J'ai décidé de prendre un taxi

a cab, a taxi - un taxi. Recall that décider takes the preposition de.


Are you guys looking for a taxi?

Cherchez-vous un taxi?

to look for - chercher. Note that chercher does not require a preposition in the same way that "to look for" does in English.


My father works in a building downtown

Mon père travaille dans un immeuble en centre-ville

downtown - centre-ville. This literally means "center of town." Note the use of en. Finally, note that "the business district" is le centre commercial -- literally, "the commercial/business center."


What are reflexive (or pronominal) verbs?

Reflexive verbs are verbs that require a reflexive pronoun in addition to a subject pronoun. Reflexive verbs are easily identifiable, as their infinitives are always preceded by se or s': for example, s'appeler, which means "to call oneself," is a reflexive verb.


What are reflexive pronouns and when are they used?

The reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nous, vous, se.

They are used in addition to subject pronouns to conjugate reflexive (or pronominal) verbs like s'appeler. The reflexive pronoun must agree with the subject of the verb. This is because the action of a reflexive verb is both performed and received by the subject; the subject is also the object of the verb.


His name is Michel

Il s'appelle Michel

his name is/he is named... - il s'appelle... When conjugating this reflexive verb in the third-person singular, you must use the reflexive pronoun se, changed here to s' because the verb begins with a vowel. The reflexive pronoun is placed after the subject (pronoun) and before the verb. The literal translation would be "he calls himself..."


(to a child) Is your name Marcel?

Est-ce que tu t'appelles Marcel?

(informal) your name is... - tu t'appelles... When conjugating this reflexive verb in the second-person singular, you must use the reflexive pronoun te, changed here to t'. The literal translation would be "you call yourself..."


Where is the Eiffel Tower?

Où se trouve la tour Eiffel?

Where is... - Où se trouve... The reflexive verb se trouver should typically be used to refer to objects or places whose location is permanent.


I remember his name

Je me rappelle de son nom

to recall, to remember - se rappeler (de). Note the use of the reflexive pronoun me to agree with the first-person singular subject. This verb also exists non-reflexively: rappeler means "to call back" or "to remind."


Now I remember that story!

Maintenant je me souviens de cette histoire!

to remember - se souvenir (de). Se rappeler can be used as a synonym.


He called her back shortly afterwards

Il l'a rappelée peu après

shortly afterwards, soon thereafter - peu après. Note how the non-reflexive rappeler means "to call back" here.


He reminds me all the time to buy stamps

Il me rappelle tout le temps d'acheter des timbres

to remind - rappeler. Recall that the non-reflexive rappeler can mean both "to remind" and "to call back."


Yes, she remembers that the meeting is mandatory

Oui, elle se rappelle que la réunion est obligatoire

mandatory - obligatoire. Note the construction se rappeler que here. Se souvenir que would also work.


We often mess up

Nous nous trompons souvent

to be mistaken, to mess up - se tromper. Note the reflexive pronoun nous, which comes after the subject pronoun (also nous) and precedes the verb. The non-reflexive tromper means "to deceive" or "to mislead."


The building is located in Paris

Le bâtiment se trouve à Paris

to be located - se trouver. Recall that the non-reflexive trouver means "to find."


Who won? It happens to be you

Qui a gagné? Il se trouve que c'est toi

to happen to be - se trouver (impersonal)


Where is the nearest amusement park?

Où se trouve le parc d'attractions le plus proche?

an amusement park - un parc d'attractions


The post office is closed

La poste est fermée

the post office - la poste, le bureau de poste. Recall that the adjective "closed" is formed from the past participle of the verb fermer, "to close."


Jean is likely at the bank

Jean est probablement à la banque

a bank - une banque. Note that probablement can mean "likely" as well as "probably."


Then, I went to the police station

Ensuite, je suis allé au commissariat

a police station - un commissariat (de police)


I just bought some potatoes at the supermarket

Je viens d'acheter des pommes de terre au supermarché

a supermarket - un supermarché


My cousins live in the suburbs

Mes cousins habitent en banlieue

suburb - banlieue. This word carries a more negative connotation in France than it does in the U.S. Typically, a French city's wealthiest districts are at the city center, while the less desirable neighborhoods are outside the city in la banlieue. You could say ils habitent dans la banlieue, but this is usually followed by the city's name (de Paris, for instance).


They're stopping at Jean's house

Ils s'arrêtent chez Jean

to stop - s'arrêter. The reflexive s'arrêter is used for stopping oneself, as in "to halt." Recall that the non-reflexive arrêter means "to cease" -- to stop something or doing something.


Madrid is the capital of Spain

Madrid est la capitale de l'Espagne

a capital - une capitale. Note the definite article before the country name. You will learn more about saying country names elsewhere.


I am having a hard time seeing the board

J'ai du mal à voir le tableau

to have a hard time (doing something) - avoir du mal (à faire quelque chose)


She is hurting herself

Elle se fait mal

to hurt oneself - se faire mal. Note the reflexive se faire in this expression. Several expressions are founded on reflexive verbs.


You are hurting Jean

Tu fais mal à Jean

to hurt someone - faire mal à quelqu'un. As an alternative, you could employ an indirect object pronoun and say Tu lui fais mal.


They are making friends

Ils se font des amis

to make friends - se faire des amis


Albert is passing himself off as a millionaire

Albert se fait passer pour un millionnaire

to pass oneself off as - se faire passer pour


He takes himself for a prince/ He thinks he is a prince

Il se prend pour un prince

to take oneself for, to think one is - se prendre pour


I wash myself every day after dinner

Je me lave tous les jours après le dîner

to wash oneself - se laver. Laver can be used both reflexively and non-reflexively. When the action is performed on the subject, it should be reflexive; when the action is performed on something else, it should be non-reflexive. "I wash my car," for instance, is Je lave ma voiture.


We understand each other

Nous nous comprenons

Note how comprendre is used reflexively here, taking on a reciprocal function; at least two subjects are acting on one another. Aimer can be used this way too: nous nous aimons (reflexive) means "we like each other," while nous aimons nos parents (non-reflexive) means "we like our parents."


He gets along very well with his sister

Il s'entend très bien avec sa soeur

to get along - s'entendre. Note how the verb entendre (to hear) takes on this completely different meaning when the reflexive pronoun is added to it.


We do not get along

Nous ne nous entendons pas

Note how in a negative sentence with a pronominal verb, the ne precedes the reflexive pronoun.


Are you going to wash yourself?

Est-ce que tu vas te laver?

Note the use here of a reflexive verb in the infinitive. The reflexive pronoun precedes the reflexive verb, even if it is in the infinitive. However, notice how the pronoun agrees with the subject.


When it is a question of money, everybody is of the same religion --Voltaire

Quand il s’agit d’argent, tout le monde est de la même religion --Voltaire

to have to do with, to be a question of, to be about - s'agir de (impersonal). The reflexive construction s'agir de is impersonal and can only be conjugated with il. A common error is to say Ce roman s'agit de, with the intended meaning being "This novel is about." Instead, say Ce roman parle de, Ce roman raconte l'histoire de, or Ce roman traite de.


He received a bad grade. It is thus necessary to study a lot more

Il a reçu une mauvaise note. Il s'agit donc d'étudier beaucoup plus

it is necessary to - s'agir de (impersonal) + infinitive. When used with an infinitive, the impersonal s'agir de often takes this meaning. Note also that the non-reflexive agir means "to behave" or "to act."


I hurt myself

Je me suis fait mal

In compound tenses, all reflexive verbs take être as the auxiliary verb. Note how the reflexive pronoun comes before the conjugated auxiliary verb.


They approached the car carefully

Ils se sont approchés de la voiture avec attention

to approach, to get close to - s'approcher de. An alternative is se rapprocher. Note the use of être as the auxiliary verb. As a result of this, the past participle agrees with the subject.


Three months went by

Trois mois se sont passés

to go by - se passer. Recall that se passer can also mean "to happen" or "to take place." When applied to time, it means "to go by."


That went well

Ça s'est bien passé

to go well - bien se passer. Another way of saying this would be Tout s'est bien passé. Note that "to go badly/poorly" is mal se passer.


She made herself something to eat

Elle s'est fait quelque chose à manger

to make something for oneself - se faire + noun


He made us leave

Il nous a fait sortir

Recall that the construction faire + infinitive means "to have something done" or "to make someone do something."


She had a hip operation (done)

Elle s'est fait opérer de sa hanche

to have something done for/to oneself - se faire + infinitive. Here, se faire is used causatively. The past participle does not change to faite to agree with the subject; the participle of faire is invariable when followed by an infinitive.


You do not seem at ease

Tu ne sembles pas à l'aise

to seem, to appear, to look (like) - sembler. This verb can be used both personally (as is the case here) and impersonally (with the impersonal il). When used personally, it can be followed by an adjective (as in the example) or by an infinitive.


The shirt seems to be expensive

La chemise semble être chère

Note the use of (the personal) sembler with an infinitive.


It seems weird to leave like this

Il semble étrange de partir comme ça

it seems, it appears, it looks (like) - il semble. When used impersonally, sembler can be followed either by an adjective + de + an infinitive (as in the example), or by que + the subjunctive, which you will learn about elsewhere.


It looks to me like no one is here

Il me semble que personne n'est ici

Note the impersonal use of sembler. The me here is an indirect object pronoun, not a reflexive pronoun. When sembler is used impersonally with an indirect object pronoun, it takes the indicative.


They look pleased

Ils paraissent contents

to appear, to look, to seem - paraître. This verb is very similar to sembler, both because of its meaning and because it can be used both personally and impersonally. Like sembler, when paraître is used personally, it can be followed by an adjective or an infinitive.


That day, she appeared alone at school

Ce jour-là, elle a paru seule à l'école

Note how paraître can be followed by a prepositional phrase. Used like this, it takes on the meaning "to show up" or "to make an appearance." You cannot use sembler this way: elle a semblé à l'école does not work.


It seems like she is going to return

Il paraît qu'elle va revenir

The impersonal il paraît is similar to il semble. However, unlike il semble que (which must be followed by the subjunctive), il paraît que can be followed by the indicative.


It seems important to me to arrive early

Il me paraît important d'arriver en avance

Here, an indirect object pronoun is used with the impersonal il paraît. Note how the verb is followed by an adjective + de + an infinitive.


I'm tired, so I'm going to sit down

Je suis fatigué, donc je vais m'asseoir

to sit (down) - s'asseoir. This is an irregular pronominal verb. Its conjugations in the present are: je m'assieds, tu t'assieds, il/elle/on s'assied, nous nous asseyons, vous vous asseyez, ils/elles s'asseyent.


He is (getting) angry at/with Marc because of what he said

Il se fâche contre Marc à cause de ce qu'il a dit

to be angry, to get angry - se fâcher. Note that fâcher means "to anger." The reflexive form se fâcher, however, changes the meaning slightly. Also note how contre means "at" or "with" here.


She is hurrying because she is late

Elle se dépêche car elle est en retard

to hurry - se dépêcher


She is annoyed because of the interruptions

Elle s'énerve à cause des interruptions

to become annoyed - s'énerver. Note that énerver is "to annoy." Also note that interruption is a feminine noun.


He is getting bored while waiting for you

Il s'ennuie en vous attendant

to get bored - s'ennuyer


I am going to fall asleep early tonight

Je vais m'endormir tôt ce soir

to fall asleep - s'endormir. Note that "to go to sleep" is aller se coucher.


She goes to bed around 9 pm

Elle se couche vers 21 heures

to go to bed - se coucher. Vers means "around" or "approximately." Note that 24-hour time is commonly used in France. Finally, the non-reflexive coucher can mean several things, including "to sleep (with)," "to sleep over/spend the night," and "to put to bed."


Jules gets dressed every morning at 7 o'clock

Jules s'habille chaque matin à 7 heures

to get dressed - s'habiller. Note that the non-reflexive habiller means "to dress" (someone else).


Before going to sleep, I get undressed

Avant d'aller dormir, je me déshabille

to undress, to get undressed - se déshabiller


Are you guys getting tired?

Est-ce que vous vous fatiguez?

to get tired - se fatiguer


You will handle it

Tu vas te débrouiller

to get by, to manage, to handle (it) - se débrouiller


She put on makeup

Elle s'est maquillée

to put on makeup - se maquiller. Note the agreement of the past participle, as the reflexive pronoun s' serves here as the direct object (the woman puts makeup on herself).


She behaves well with her mother

Elle se comporte bien avec sa mère

to behave, to act - se comporter


Have they come home? I imagine not

Est-ce qu'ils sont rentrés? J'imagine que non

to imagine - imaginer


We are having fun / We are having a good time

Nous nous amusons bien

to have fun - s'amuser. This verb is typically used with bien. Also note that the non-reflexive amuser means "to amuse" or "to entertain."


I cut myself by accident

Je me suis coupé par accident

to cut oneself - se couper. Note that couper is simply "to cut."


I wonder if she is going to be at Julie's

Je me demande si elle va être chez Julie

to ask (oneself), to wonder - se demander


I have to wake up at 6:30 tomorrow

Je dois me réveiller à 6h30 demain

to wake (oneself) up - se réveiller. Note that the non-reflexive réveiller means "to wake (someone) up."


I feel good because it's nice outside

Je me sens bien car il fait beau

to feel - se sentir. This reflexive verb applies generally to how one feels (good, bad, sick, etc.). The non-reflexive sentir applies instead to physically feeling things. It can also mean "to smell" or "to taste."


When she arrived I felt great joy

Quand elle est arrivée j'ai ressenti une grande joie

to feel (emotion) - ressentir. This verb is used typically with nouns (of emotion) -- joy, remorse, sadness, solitude, stress, etc.


Can I (take a) rest? I'm feeling tired

Est-ce que je peux me reposer? Je me sens fatigué

to rest - se reposer


In the morning, Marie looks at herself in the mirror

Le matin, Marie se regarde dans le miroir

to look at oneself - se regarder. Note the masculine noun miroir. Also note that se regarder can be used for reciprocal action: nous nous regardons, for example, means both "we look at each other" and "we look at ourselves."


Claude does not swim well and doesn't want to drown

Claude ne nage pas bien et ne veut pas se noyer

to drown - se noyer


Are they arguing?

Est-ce qu'elles se disputent?

to argue - se disputer


When did they get married? In June

Quand est-ce qu'ils se sont mariés? En juin

to get married - se marier. This verb is used most commonly to describe two people marrying each other. To describe one person marrying another, use épouser: il a épousé sa femme.


I can't watch the movie if you don't stop talking

Je ne peux pas regarder le film si tu ne te tais pas

to stop talking, to shut up - se taire


This year, I'm going to take an interest in math

Cette année, je vais m'intéresser aux maths

to be interested in, to take an interest in - s'intéresser à. Note the use of aux since math(ématique)s is plural.


They always trust you. You know that well

Ils te font toujours confiance. Tu le sais bien

to trust - faire confiance à. The reflexive verb se fier à or the expression avoir confiance en could work as alternatives.


They are making fun of him because he's old

Elles se moquent de lui parce qu'il est vieux

to make fun of - se moquer de


I'm going to have to get up and go to work early tomorrow morning

Je vais devoir me lever et aller au travail tôt demain matin

to get up - se lever. Note that this is different from the verb se réveiller, "to wake up."


Paul shaves every morning

Paul se rase tous les matins

to shave (oneself) - se raser


They still haven't gotten used to the weather

Ils ne se sont pas encore habitués au temps

to get used to - s'habituer à. Recall that in the past tense, the participle of reflexive verbs must agree with the subject. Also note that s'habituer does not allow preceding indirect object pronouns. For example, you cannot say Tu vas m'habituer; you must say Tu vas t'habituer à moi.


I don't care about what he is saying

Je m'en fiche de ce qu'il dit

to not care about - s'en ficher de. This is an informal expression that should only be used conversationally. Note its use of the pronoun en, which you will learn about elsewhere.


He is integrating himself into American society

Il s'intègre dans la société américaine

to integrate oneself (into) - s'intégrer (dans). Note that société can mean both "company" and "society."


She expressed her many regrets

Elle a exprimé ses nombreux regrets

to express - exprimer. The reflexive s'exprimer means "to express oneself." Note also that regret is masculine.


He is heading toward the subway

Il se dirige vers le métro

to move/head toward - se diriger vers. The non-pronominal diriger can mean "to be in charge of," "to direct," or "to guide."


The two men are going away

Les deux hommes s'en vont

to go away - s'en aller. This expression employs the pronoun en, which you will learn about elsewhere. Also note that partir can function as a synonym for s'en aller.


You will get by / You will get through (this)

Tu vas t'en sortir

to manage/cope, to get by/through - s'en sortir


She tried to sneak out after her father went to sleep

Elle a essayé de sortir sur la pointe des pieds après que son père s'est couché

to sneak out (of) - sortir sur la pointe des pieds. This is an idiomatic expression that literally means "to leave on the tips of the feet." In this way, it's similar to the expression "to tiptoe."


They are worrying about the exam tomorrow

Ils s'inquiètent de l'examen demain

to worry (about) - s'inquiéter (de). Note the use of de to mean "about." Another way of saying "to worry" is s'en faire: ne t'en fais pas -- "don't worry (about it)."


The king addressed them

Le roi s'est adressé à eux

to address - s'adresser à


That makes me sad

Ça me rend triste

to make + adjective - rendre + adjective. If "to make" is followed by an adjective, you should use rendre rather than faire. Rendre is a common verb that can take many meanings.


You guys returned the books to the library

Vous avez rendu les livres à la bibliothèque

to return, to give back (something) - rendre (quelque chose). Rendre most literally means "to return," but it can be used in several ways to mean several different things.


She is not aware of the fact that Pierre is not here

Elle ne se rend pas compte du fait que Pierre n'est pas là

to realize, to be aware (of) - se rendre compte (de). Note that compte is invariable and does not need to agree with the subject.


Marcel realizes that she is doing it

Marcel se rend compte qu'elle le fait

Note that se rendre compte can be followed by que as well as de.


I visited you last week

Je t'ai rendu visite la semaine dernière

to visit (someone) - rendre visite à (quelqu'un). This verb applies to visiting people. The verb visiter applies to visiting or seeing places.


You failed your exams, but too bad, such is life

Tu as raté tes examens, mais tant pis, c'est la vie

too bad, never mind - tant pis. Note that the opposite of this expression is tant mieux, which roughly translates to "all the better" or "even better."


We pleased her by singing for her yesterday

Hier nous lui avons fait plaisir en chantant pour elle

to please someone - faire plaisir à quelqu'un