Lesson 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 14 Deck (60):
1

What is the imperative?

The imperative mood (or l'impératif) is primarily used to express commands. It is used for requests, directions, advice, and suggestions.

2

How do you conjugate the imperative?

Each verb has only three conjugations in the imperative. Conjugations are formed by taking the tu, nous, or vous forms of the present tense. Subject pronouns are not used in the imperative.

3

Let's go to the concert!

Allons au concert!

Note the first-person plural conjugation of aller in the imperative. The subject pronoun nous is not used, and the verb is conjugated just as it is in the present tense.

4

Do your homework

Fais tes devoirs

Note the second-person singular form of faire in the imperative, which is the same as its second-person singular form in the present.

5

(to multiple people) Drink some water!

Buvez de l'eau!

Note the second-person plural form of boire in the imperative, which is the same as the second-person plural form in the present tense.

6

Let's finish our work

Finissons notre travail

Note the first-person plural conjugation of finir in the imperative, which is the same as the first-person plural form in the present tense.

7

Give the chair to Marie

Donne la chaise à Marie

For -ER verbs in the imperative, the "s" is dropped from the second-person singular form of the present.

8

Speak!

Parle!

The tu forms of -ER verbs do not take the "s" from their tu forms in the present tense.

9

Open the box, please

Ouvre la boîte, s'il te plaît

For all verbs that are conjugated like -ER verbs (like ouvrir), the tu form in the present ends in -es, so in the imperative the "s" is deleted.

10

Talk about it

Parles-en

Before the pronouns en and y, the second-person singular imperative of -ER verbs takes an "s." In other words, the present tense tu form is used.

11

Go there!

Vas-y!

The tu form of aller in the imperative usually does not have an "s," but it does here before the pronoun y.

12

Know the truth

Sache la vérité

Note the irregular imperative of savoir. The nous form is sachons, while the vous form is sachez.

13

(to kids) Be good/well-behaved

Soyez sages

Note the irregular imperative of être. The tu form is sois, while the nous form is soyons.

14

Have some patience

Aie de la patience

Note the irregular imperative of avoir. The nous form is ayons, while the vous form is ayez.

15

(formal) Please excuse me

Veuillez m'excuser

The irregular imperative vous form of vouloir, veuillez, is commonly used to politely request something. It can thus be translated as "if you would be so kind (to)," "please," and "would you."

16

If you would be so kind to sit down

Veuillez vous asseoir

The imperative vous form of vouloir can be either voulez or the irregular veuillez. The tu form can be either veux or veuille. The nous form, voulons, is almost never used. The literal translation here would be "Want to excuse me."

17

Get up! Let's get up!

Lève-toi! Levons-nous!

For reflexive verbs in the imperative, the reflexive pronoun comes after the verb, joined by a hyphen. The reflexive pronoun te becomes toi in the imperative.

18

Don't listen!

N'écoute pas!

Note how the basic negative construction ne... pas surrounds the verb in the imperative.

19

Never talk like that!

Ne parle jamais comme ça!

Note the use of the negative construction ne... jamais with the imperative.

20

Let's wash ourselves. Let's not wash ourselves

Lavons-nous. Ne nous lavons pas

In the negative imperative of reflexive verbs, the reflexive pronoun (nous in this case) comes before the verb.

21

You haven't finished your potatoes? Finish them!

Tu n'as pas fini tes pommes de terre? Finis-les!

Object pronouns are placed after affirmative commands, linked to the verb with a hyphen. The affirmative imperative is the only tense for which object pronouns go after the verb.

22

Give the book to Jean. Give it to Jean

Donne le livre à Jean. Donne-le à Jean

Note how the object pronoun comes after the affirmative command, linked to it by a hyphen.

23

Adore me!

Adorez-moi!

The object pronouns me and te change to moi and toi after an affirmative command.

24

Tell me

Dis-moi

Note how the object pronoun me is changed to moi, and comes after the verb, joined to it by a hyphen.

25

Pass him the fork

Passez-lui la fourchette

Note how the object pronoun lui comes after the verb in the (affirmative) imperative.

26

(formal) Don't call me when I'm at work

Ne m'appelez pas quand je suis au travail

Recall that the affirmative imperative is the only tense for which object pronouns come after the verb. For negative commands, object pronouns are placed before the verb. Here, m' precedes the verb.

27

The apple? Don't give it to the baby!

La pomme? Ne la donne pas au bébé!

Note how the object pronoun (la) is placed before the verb, which is in the negative imperative.

28

Never talk to me like that!

Ne me parle jamais comme ça!

Because the verb is in the negative imperative, the object pronoun comes before the verb.

29

(formal) Pass me the stapler, please

Passez-moi l'agrafeuse, s'il vous plaît

Note how the imperative is used here to make a request.

30

Then, turn to the left

Ensuite, tournez sur la gauche

Notice how sur is used with the imperative of tourner to mean "to." Another option would be tournez à gauche -- "turn left."

31

If Paul is at his house, give him the present

Si Paul est chez lui, donnez-lui le cadeau

Recall that if a si clause is in the present, the main verb can be in the present, future, or imperative.

32

To arrive at the Eiffel Tower, turn right and then continue straight ahead

Pour arriver à la tour Eiffel, tournez à droite et puis continuez tout droit

Note the use of the imperative for directions. The vous form is commonly used since it's more polite, but using the tu form with friends is perfectly acceptable.

33

At the next intersection, turn left

Au prochain carrefour, tournez à gauche

an intersection - un carrefour, un croisement

34

It is at least 300 kilometers from here to Marseille by car

Ça fait au moins 300 kilomètres d'ici à Marseille en voiture

Note how the verb faire is used to express distances.

35

My mom has my car. I'll have to go there by foot

Ma mère a ma voiture. Je devrai y aller à pied

on/by foot - à pied. Recall that most other means of transportation are introduced by the preposition en.

36

It's expensive to go from Italy to Greece by plane

C'est cher d'aller d'Italie en Grèce en avion

by plane - en avion

37

Jean is looking to ask someone for directions

Jean cherche à demander son chemin à quelqu'un

to ask for directions - demander son chemin

38

At what stop must you get off to go to the Eiffel Tower?

À quel arrêt faut-il descendre pour aller à la tour Eiffel?

39

This car has a very loud horn

Cette voiture a un klaxon très fort

a (car) horn - un klaxon. Note that fort can mean both "strong" and "loud."

40

Jean doesn't like driving to work because there's always too much traffic

Jean n'aime pas aller au travail en voiture parce qu'il y a toujours trop de circulation

traffic - la circulation

41

The car slowed down before turning

La voiture a ralenti avant de tourner

to slow down - ralentir

42

I am late because of a traffic jam

Je suis en retard à cause d'un embouteillage

a traffic jam - un embouteillage. This word is similar to the English word "bottleneck" in that it is closely related to the word for "bottle," bouteille.

43

Is there a highway between Paris and Marseille?

Est-ce qu'il y a une autoroute entre Paris et Marseille?

a freeway, a highway - une autoroute

44

The speed limit on this highway changes very often

La limitation de vitesse sur cette autoroute change très souvent

a speed limit - une limitation de vitesse. Vitesse, "speed," is a feminine noun.

45

I do not like driving on the highway. There are too many trucks

Je n'aime pas conduire sur l'autoroute. Il y a trop de camions

a truck - un camion

46

The majority of Parisians prefer motorcycles over cars

La plupart des Parisiens préfèrent les motos aux voitures

a motorcycle - une moto(cyclette). Note how the verb is in the third-person plural, corresponding with les Parisiens rather than with la plupart.

47

There is a shuttle between the airport and the hotel

Il y a une navette entre l'aéroport et l'hôtel

a shuttle - une navette. "A space shuttle" is une navette spatiale.

48

We've been driving for six hours. The car needs gas

On conduit depuis six heures. La voiture a besoin d'essence

gas (for a car) - l'essence. This is a feminine noun. Note that "gas" in general (vapor and/or what's needed for heating) is gaz, a masculine noun.

49

Where is the closest gas station?

Où se trouve la station-service la plus proche?

a gas station - une station-service, une station essence

50

To go to Toulon, take the next exit

Pour aller à Toulon, prenez la prochaine sortie

an exit - une sortie. Note that une sortie can also be the exit to a building.

51

I think the Rue de Vaugirard is one-way

Je crois que la rue de Vaugirard est à sens unique

one-way - à sens unique

52

Marie just bought new tires for her car

Marie vient d'acheter des nouveaux pneus pour sa voiture

a tire - un pneu

53

I saw that he had a flat tire

J'ai vu qu'il avait un pneu crevé

a flat tire - un pneu crevé

54

I put your suitcases in the trunk

J'ai mis tes valises dans le coffre

a trunk - un coffre. This term applies both to the trunk of a car and a large box for storage.

55

If there is a problem with the car, you must check under the hood

S'il y a un problème avec la voiture, il faut vérifier sous le capot

the hood (of a car) - le capot

56

I had to go to the hospital when I got sick last week

J'ai dû aller à l'hôpital quand je suis tombé malade la semaine dernière

a hospital - un hôpital. Recall that "to become sick" is tomber malade.

57

We're out of food. Please go to the grocery store

On n'a plus de nourriture. Allez à l'épicerie, s'il vous plaît

a grocery store - une épicerie

58

What are the business hours of this store?

Quelles sont les heures ouvrables de ce magasin?

business hours - heures ouvrables. The term heures d'ouverture is also used, although it technically means "opening times" or "opening hours."

59

Enjoy your stay!

Bon séjour!

a stay - un séjour

60

Have a nice trip!

Nous vous souhaitons un agréable voyage!

Have a nice/good trip - Nous vous souhaitons un agréable/bon voyage. The literal translation of this expression is "We wish you a nice/good trip." It's common to shorten it to simply Bon voyage!