Yesterday I found twenty euros in the living room
Hier j'ai trouvé vingt euros dans le salon
to find - trouver
Today I met a cool professor
Aujourd'hui j'ai rencontré un professeur sympa
to meet, to run into - rencontrer
He cannot find a good job
Il ne peut pas trouver un bon emploi
a job - un emploi, un métier. Note that métier applies more to a "career." In conversation, French speakers commonly use an informal term for "job" -- le boulot.
I'm going to work
Je vais au bureau
(place of) work, the office - le travail, le bureau. Note that un bureau can also refer to "an office (room)" in a house, as well as "a desk."
What do you do for a living?
Quel métier faites-vous?
What do you do for a living? - Quel métier faites-vous? An alternative would be: Que faites-vous dans la vie?
How's the weather?
Quel temps fait-il?
How's the weather? - Quel temps fait-il? Literally, this translates to "What weather does it do?" Recall that temps refers to "(the) weather" as well as "time."
My father is a doctor
Mon père est docteur
a doctor - un docteur, un médecin. Recall that when declaring someone's profession, articles can be omitted. In this case, un is not used.
I need a lawyer
J'ai besoin d'un avocat
a lawyer - un avocat
The most famous businessman is Donald Trump
L'homme d'affaires le plus connu est Donald Trump
a businessman - un homme d'affaires. A businesswoman is a femme d'affaires. Note how the past participle of connaître, connu ("known"), is used as an adjective to mean "famous." Célèbre is another way of saying "famous."
I do not like politicians
Je n'aime pas les hommes politiques
a politician - un homme politique. Note that politique must be made plural if you are talking about more than one politician.
Mr. Dupont is an engineer
M. Dupont est ingénieur
an engineer - un ingénieur. Note that you can also use the more general term technicien.
These are disjunctive, or stressed, pronouns. They are used for emphasis when referring to people.
I don't want to leave
Moi, je ne veux pas partir
Stressed pronouns often come at either the beginning or end of sentences to emphasize pronouns or nouns. The literal translation here would be "Me, I don't want to leave."
You are thinking about him. Is he thinking about you?
Tu penses à lui. Pense-t-il à toi?
Note the use of disjunctive pronouns after prepositions.
Are you going to their house without us?
Vas-tu chez eux sans nous?
English translations of French phrases containing stressed pronouns often end up being quite different. In this case, the English does not employ "them," the counterpart of eux, because of the term chez.
Who wants some sugar? Him
Qui veut du sucre? Lui
Note how disjunctive pronouns can be used to answer questions. They can also be used in asking questions: Elle veut aller. Et toi? -- "She wants to go. And you?"
I like only him
Je n'aime que lui
The negative construction ne... que, which means "only," is commonly used with disjunctive pronouns.
You are a lot stronger than he/him
Tu es beaucoup plus fort que lui
Note how stressed pronouns are used after que in a comparison.
You're the one who wants to go hiking
C'est toi qui veux faire de la randonnée
Stressed pronouns can be used after c'est. Also note how the verb veux agrees with the subject; in this case, it is conjugated in the second-person singular to match toi.
It's they who are eating
Ce sont eux qui mangent
All disjunctive pronouns can follow c'est, with the exception of eux and elles, which must use ce sont instead.
You're going to make food yourself?
Tu vas faire à manger toi-même?
Note the use of the stressed pronoun with même, which is done for emphasis.
I will find the cat myself
Je vais trouver le chat moi-même
This pencil is mine
Ce crayon est à moi
Note how possession can be conveyed by using être à with a disjunctive pronoun. An alternative would be to use the adjective propre, which can mean "own": C'est mon propre crayon -- "This is my own pencil."
You and I are arriving
Toi et moi, nous arrivons
Note how disjunctive pronouns are used when there is more than one subject in a sentence. The same is true when there is more than one object.
Every man/Each one for himself
Chacun pour soi
The disjunctive pronoun soi is used when the subject is general or consists of unspecified persons.
When one is tired, one stays home
Quand on est fatigué, on reste chez soi
Because the indefinite pronoun on is used, the indefinite disjunctive pronoun soi is employed after the preposition chez. Here you're really saying "When people are tired, they stay home" (at their respective homes). An alternative is Quand nous sommes fatigués, nous restons chez nous, but the meaning there changes slightly: "When we're tired, we stay home" (at our single house).
I want to be a fireman
Je veux être pompier
a fireman - un pompier
My sister is going to be a nurse
Ma soeur va être infirmière
a nurse - un infirmier. Note the feminine form in the example.
Pablo Picasso is a very well known painter
Pablo Picasso est un peintre très connu
a painter - un peintre. Note that "a painting" is une peinture.