Life at the Cellular 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Life at the Cellular 1 Deck (20)
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1
Q

Describe a cell.

A

The functional unit of all living things.

2
Q

Why are cells small?

A

They need a large surface area for things such as absorption and evaporation.

3
Q

Give 3 features of a prokaryotic cell.

A

Bacteria, lack nuclear membrane, no mitochondria, no membrane bound structures.

4
Q

Give 3 features of a eukaryotic cell

A

Human cells, multicellular animals and plants, nucleus with membrane, membrane bound structures.

5
Q

What are the 2 types of stem cells?

A

Multipotent (can differentiate into many cell types) and pluripotent (can differentiate into all cell types).

6
Q

Give the characteristics of cancer cells.

A

Continuously dividing, don’t co-ordinate with normal cells, don’t differentiate into specialised cells and displace and replace normal cells if not stopped.

7
Q

Define apoptosis.

A

A central mechanism controlling multicellular development. Apoptosis is intimately coupled to cell proliferation.

8
Q

Name the 4 types of tissue.

A

Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle.

9
Q

Define tissues.

A

Functional arrangement of cells.

10
Q

Define organs.

A

Mixture of different tissues.

11
Q

Define systems.

A

Cells or organs with similar functional roles.

12
Q

What 2 components make up the cell membrane?

A

Lipids (amphiphatic) and proteins (span some membranes).

13
Q

What are the 6 functions of the plasma membrane?

A

Transport, enzymatic activity, receptors for signal transduction, intercellular joining, cell-cell recognition, attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.

14
Q

Define passive diffusion.

A

Concentration gradient needed, lipid soluble molecules only.

15
Q

Define facilitated diffusion.

A

Concentration gradient needed, requires carrier proteins.

16
Q

What is endocytosis?

A

A form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

17
Q

What is exocytosis?

A

Materials are exported out of the cell via secretory vesicles.

18
Q

Define cell adhesion.

A

Occluding junction stops molecules from leaving the cell, all the other junctions are for separation.

19
Q

Name the 2 types of adhesive junctions.

A

Adherens and desmosomes.

20
Q

What are gap junctions?

A

Channels linking 2 cell cytoplasms together.