Bone Flashcards Preview

Science for Medicine > Bone > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Deck (18):
1

What are the 4 functions of bone?

Weight bearing/support
Protection
Mineral Store
Blood formation

2

Name the 6 structures of bone.

Compact bone
Trabecular bone
Blood Vessels
Medullary Cavity
Bone marrow
Membranes (periosteum/endosteum)

3

How is compact bone organised?

Into circular structures called Osteons/Haversian systems.

4

Define osteons.

Made up of sheets of bone around the Haversian canal.

5

What is trabecular bone made of?

Lamellated trabeculae filled with bone marrow.

6

Nme 6 types of bones and an example.

Flat bone - skull
Sutural bone - joints in skull
Long bone - limbs
Short bones - hands and feet
Irregular bone - vertebra
Sesamoid bones - patella

7

Define endochondral bone formation.

Most common, includes long bone growth found inside cartilage.

8

Define intramembranous bone formation.

Flat bone e.g clavicle and found between membranes.

9

Define ossification.

In bone remodelling it is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.

10

What is the process of endochondral ossification?

Forms as cartilage model first
Blood vessels invade
Cartilage is replaced by bone
Cartilage remains in epiphyseal growth plate
Growth plate eventually ossifies

11

What is the process of intramembranous ossification?

No cartilage phase
Mesenchymal cells develop into osteoprogenitor cells which mature into osteoblasts
Residual mesenchymal develop blood vessels and bone marrow

12

What is bone made of?

Cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix.

13

What are the functions of minerals and collagen in the bone?

Minerals keep them stiff and good for support whilst collagen gives the bone flexibility, reducing the risk of fracture.

14

Define bone remodelling.

A constant process which occurs in healthy bone as it will continue to remove and reform.

15

Define osteoblasts.

Immature bone cells which produce bone matrix and initiate calcification.

16

Define osteocytes.

Mature bone found inside lacunae and connect to canaliculi allowing communication between cells.

17

Define osteoclasts.

Multinucleate cells derived from monocytes/macrophages. Found on bone surface and are large with the function of reabsorbing bone matrix.

18

Why does a women going through menopause have a decrease in bone mass?

Oestrogen inhibits bone resorption.