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Flashcards in Bone Deck (18)
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1
Q

What are the 4 functions of bone?

A

Weight bearing/support
Protection
Mineral Store
Blood formation

2
Q

Name the 6 structures of bone.

A
Compact bone
Trabecular bone
Blood Vessels
Medullary Cavity
Bone marrow
Membranes (periosteum/endosteum)
3
Q

How is compact bone organised?

A

Into circular structures called Osteons/Haversian systems.

4
Q

Define osteons.

A

Made up of sheets of bone around the Haversian canal.

5
Q

What is trabecular bone made of?

A

Lamellated trabeculae filled with bone marrow.

6
Q

Nme 6 types of bones and an example.

A
Flat bone - skull
Sutural bone - joints in skull
Long bone - limbs
Short bones - hands and feet
Irregular bone - vertebra
Sesamoid bones - patella
7
Q

Define endochondral bone formation.

A

Most common, includes long bone growth found inside cartilage.

8
Q

Define intramembranous bone formation.

A

Flat bone e.g clavicle and found between membranes.

9
Q

Define ossification.

A

In bone remodelling it is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.

10
Q

What is the process of endochondral ossification?

A
Forms as cartilage model first
Blood vessels invade
Cartilage is replaced by bone
Cartilage remains in epiphyseal growth plate
Growth plate eventually ossifies
11
Q

What is the process of intramembranous ossification?

A

No cartilage phase
Mesenchymal cells develop into osteoprogenitor cells which mature into osteoblasts
Residual mesenchymal develop blood vessels and bone marrow

12
Q

What is bone made of?

A

Cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix.

13
Q

What are the functions of minerals and collagen in the bone?

A

Minerals keep them stiff and good for support whilst collagen gives the bone flexibility, reducing the risk of fracture.

14
Q

Define bone remodelling.

A

A constant process which occurs in healthy bone as it will continue to remove and reform.

15
Q

Define osteoblasts.

A

Immature bone cells which produce bone matrix and initiate calcification.

16
Q

Define osteocytes.

A

Mature bone found inside lacunae and connect to canaliculi allowing communication between cells.

17
Q

Define osteoclasts.

A

Multinucleate cells derived from monocytes/macrophages. Found on bone surface and are large with the function of reabsorbing bone matrix.

18
Q

Why does a women going through menopause have a decrease in bone mass?

A

Oestrogen inhibits bone resorption.