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Flashcards in Life at the Cellular 2 Deck (31)
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1
Q

Define contact dependent cell signalling.

A

Cells join together and cause an effect in both cells.

2
Q

Define paracrine cell signalling.

A

Gives an effect to cells in the local area.

3
Q

Define endocrine cell signalling.

A

Rely on blood to carry a signal around the body to cause an effect.

4
Q

Define synaptic cell signalling.

A

Specific to neurones and nerve system, chemical reactions.

5
Q

Define cell signalling.

A

When an external signal binds to a receptor on the cell surface causing a response in the cell.

6
Q

Give 3 features of mitochondria

A
  • inner and outer membrane
  • own ribosomes to manufacture proteins
  • own circular DNA
  • self-replicate
7
Q

Give 3 features of the nucleus

A
  • contains DNA, nucleoprotein and RNA
  • DNA (heterochromatin and euchromatin)
  • nuclear membrane is a phospholipid bilayer
  • contains pores
8
Q

Give 3 features of the endoplasmic reticulum/golgi apparatus

A
  • rough ER has ribosomes attached
  • proteins made in ER passed through GA for post translational modifications
  • smooth ER breaks down compounds and sometimes does synthesis
9
Q

Give 3 features of lysosomes

A
  • separate enzymes from the rest of the cell
  • a type of vesicle
  • contain digestive enzymes which are made in the GA
  • kept in a vesicle to the cell doesn’t digest itself
  • used in autophagy
10
Q

What are the 5 roles of the cytoskeleton?

A
  • support and maintenance of cell shape
  • holds organelles in position
  • moves organelles
  • involved in cytoplasmic streaming
  • interacts with extracellular structures to hold cell in place
11
Q

What 3 things is the cytoskeleton made up of?

A

microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (fibrous subunit) and microtubules (tubulin).

12
Q

What are the 2 types of cell surface projections?

A

Cilia - short and in abundance, move with a stiff power stroke and a flexible recovery stroke

Flagella - long, usually only one or two present and movement is snakelike.

13
Q

Which 10 natural elements are structural parts of organisms?

A
Hydrogen
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sodium
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Chlorine
Potassium
Calcium
14
Q

Name another element which is very important in the body?

A

Iron in haemoglobin.

15
Q

Which 4 elements make us 99% of the body and why?

A
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon
As they are the 4 lightest atoms that can make 1, 2, 3 and 4 bonds, and the smaller the atom the stronger the bond.
16
Q

What are the two forms of asymmetric molecules?

A

Laevo (left-handed) and Dextro (right-handed).

17
Q

Why can many biomolecules rotate freely?

A

They contain c-c bonds.

18
Q

What are the 5 chemical reactions of life?

A

Redox, making/breaking of c-c bonds, internal rearrangements, group transfer, condensation/hydrolysis.

19
Q

The molecule being oxidised is called the ___ agent and the molecule being reduced is called the ___ agent.

A

Reducing, oxidising.

20
Q

Define internal rearrangment.

A

When a molecule changes without the addition or removal of anything. I.e the chemical formula remains the same but the molecule doesn’t.

21
Q

Define a condensation reaction.

A

Produces water and 1 product.

22
Q

Define a hydrolysis reaction.

A

Uses water and gives 2 products.

23
Q

What is the normal breakdown of water to chemicals in organisms?

A

70% water to 30% chemicals.

24
Q

Define proteins.

A

Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

25
Q

Which bases are pyrimidines?

A

Cytosine, thymine and uracil.

26
Q

Which bases are purines?

A

Adenine and guanine.

27
Q

Why can RNA form a massive number of shapes?

A

Due to its ability to be highly folded and it’s single stranded.

28
Q

What reaction are glucose polymers formed by?

A

Condensation.

29
Q

Define a lipid.

A

Usually contain one or more long chain fatty acid, can be saturated or unsaturated.

30
Q

Would saturated or unsaturated lipids have a kink in them?

A

Unsaturated due to no rotation at the C=C bond.

31
Q
Match these words: 
Olive Oil
Mix
Butter
Polyunsaturated
Lard 
Saturated
A

Olive Oil - polyunsaturated
Butter - mix
Lard - saturated