Foundations of Immunology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Foundations of Immunology 1 Deck (20)
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1
Q

Define a pathogen.

A

Any microorganism that causes harm or disease i.e virus, protozoa, bacteria, fungi or parasite

2
Q

What 4 physical barriers are there?

A

Skin
Reproductive
Respiratory
Digestive tract

3
Q

What are 3 features of the innate immune system?

A

Non specific
First to come into play
Will produce the same response every time

4
Q

What are 3 features of the adaptive immune system?

A

Highly specific
Immunological memory
Antibody production

5
Q

If something goes past the physical barrier, the innate innate immune system will kick in and the area will become ______ and ______. There will be an influx of ______ to the area.

A

Red, swollen, macrophages.

6
Q

During phagocytosis, why do macrophages give off chemicals?

A

To restrict blood flow away from the site of injury.

7
Q

What causes the swelling?

A

Contraction of endothelial cells allowing some leakage.

8
Q

What is pus mainly made of?

A

Dead neutrophils.

9
Q

What do the granules of eosinophils contain?

A

Many enzymes

10
Q

What is the least common granulocyte?

A

Basophil

11
Q

Give 2 examples of soluble substances with protective functions.

A

Growth/enzyme inhibitors
Lysins
Complementary proteins

12
Q

What 3 activation pathways are part of the complement system?

A

Classical
Alternative
Lectin

13
Q

How is classical activation pathway linked to the adaptive immune system?

A

It uses antibodies to start it off.

14
Q

All 3 pathways end up with a ______ convertase at the bottom and they bind to the cell being attacked, cleaving _____ in the serum surrounding it.

A

C5

15
Q

Name 4 functions of the complement system.

A

Induce lysis of microbes
Promote phagocytosis of microbes
Stimulate inflammation
Stimulate activation of B cells and Ab production

16
Q

What two receptors do natural killer cells have?

A

One for the protein on the target and one for MHC.

17
Q

What will cause the natural killer cell to kill the cell?

A

If only one of its receptors bind.

18
Q

Define cytokines.

A

Chemicals used by cells to communicate with other cells.

19
Q

Define acute inflammatory response.

A

Initial response of the body to harmful stimuli.

20
Q

Define chronic inflammatory response.

A

Leads to progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation.