Carbohydrates 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrates 1 Deck (15)
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1
Q

Name 4 features of carbohydrates.

A

Highly oxidisable
Function to store potential energy
Have structural and protective functions
Contribute to cell to cell communication

2
Q

Define monosaccharides.

A

Single monomer sugars e.g glucose, galactose and fructose.

3
Q

Define disaccharides.

A

Formed by sugar monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds. Covalent bonds are formed when hydroxyl group of one monomer reacts with the anomeric carbon of another monomer.

4
Q

Define anomeric carbon.

A

Anomers are mirror images of each other and it stabilises the structure of glucose for example. Only residue which can be oxidised.

5
Q

Define maltose.

A

Breakdown product of starch, reducing sugar.

6
Q

Define lactose.

A

Formed from a glycosidic bond between galactose and glucose, reducing sugar.

7
Q

Define sucrose.

A

Made by plants and is 25% of dietary carbons.

8
Q

Define polysaccharides.

A

Polymers of medium to high molecular weight. Distinguished by recurring monosaccharide units, length, type of bonds and amount of branching.

9
Q

What 2 types of glucose does starch contain?

A

Amylose and amylopectin.

10
Q

Glycogen is a polymer of ______ linked subunits.

A

Glucose

11
Q

Name 3 reasons why glucose should be stored in polymers.

A

Compact
Degraded and synthesised easily
Not in solution so osmotically inactive.

12
Q

Define glycoproteins.

A

Proteins with carbs attached. Carbs can increase solubility, help protein folding and increase protection and communication.

13
Q

Define glycosaminoglycans.

A

Unbranched polymers made from repeating units of hexuronic acid and an amino sugar.

14
Q

Define proteoglycans.

A

Formed from GAG’s covalently attaching to proteins.

15
Q

Define glycoproteins.

A

Similar to proteoglycans and found on the outer plasma membrane but also the ECM and blood.