Life at the Cellular 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Life at the Cellular 4 Deck (17)
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1
Q

Name 5 functions of water.

A
  • bathes our cells
  • dissolves and transports compounds
  • allows compounds to move within and between cells
  • participates in chemical reactions
  • dissipates heat
2
Q

Describe the polarity of water.

A

Water is polar and the oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen so attracts the electrons of the covalent bond.

3
Q

What makes the liquid property of water?

A

Hydrogen bonds constantly being formed and broken.

4
Q

When does hydrogen bonding occur?

A

When Hydrogen is bonding to highly electronegative ions such as oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine.

5
Q

Give 4 examples of polar (water soluble) molecules.

A

Sugars, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones.

6
Q

As carbon dioxide and water are not water soluble, explain how they travel around the body.

A

Oxygen travels around the body in haemoglobin.

Carbon dioxide travels around the body in bicarbonate.

7
Q

All charged molecules are hydrophilic/hydrophobic.

A

Hydrophilic

8
Q

Why do non-polar molecules organise themselves in water?

A

To minimise disruption of hydrogen bonding among surrounding molecules.

9
Q

Define amphiphatic molecules.

A

Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic i.e phospholipids.

10
Q

What can phospholipids form?

A

Liposomes

11
Q

What do hydrophobic lipids travel around the blood in?

A

Chylomicrons

12
Q

What is the water dissociation equation?

A

H2O equilibrium arrows H+ + OH-

Kw = [H+][OH-]

13
Q

What is Kw?

A

Ion product of water

14
Q

Define strong acids/bases.

A

Fully dissociates into ions.

15
Q

Define weak acids/bases.

A

Partially dissociate into ions.

16
Q

Acids are proton ______ which become ______ and bases are proton ______ which become ______.

A

donors, conjugative bases, acceptors, conjugative acids.

17
Q

If blood didn’t have bicarbonate buffer systems, what would happen to blood pH?

A

It would fluctuate hugely as there are loads of reactions requiring acidic components.