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Flashcards in Introduction to Blood Deck (30)
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1
Q

What is the distribution of blood in an average 70kg male?

A

1 litre in blood vessels
3 litres in venous circulation
1 litre in heart/arterial circulation

2
Q

Why can veins be called capacitance vessels?

A

As they carry the most blood.

3
Q

What 4 components make up blood?

A

Plasma, RBC, WBC and platelets.

4
Q

What 4 subdivisions of plasma proteins are there?

A

Albumin
Globulin
Fibrinogen
Other clotting factors

5
Q

Define albumin.

A

Transport proteins for molecules like steroids and lipids

6
Q

Define globulin.

A

Alpha and beta are transport proteins

Gamma are antibodies

7
Q

Define fibrinogen.

A

Helps with blood clotting.

8
Q

What is colloid oncotic pressure?

A

Plasma proteins making water move across the capillary wall as they cannot do so.

9
Q

What is the usual oncotic pressure?

A

25mmHg

10
Q

Interstitial fluid is approx ______ times greater than plasma volume.

A

3-4

11
Q

Capillary hydrostatic pressure favours movement ______ of the capillary whereas plasma protein concentration favours movement ______ capillary.

A

Out, into

12
Q

What is hypoproteinemia?

A

Abnormally low levels of circulating plasma protein.

13
Q

What is oedema?

A

Swelling of ankles and wrists as fluid accumulates in interstitial fluid.

14
Q

Where do all blood cells come from?

A

Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells.

15
Q

What are the features of erythrocytes (RBC)?

A

Most abundant blood cell.
120 day lifespan.
Flexible, biconcave and non nucleated.
Densely packed with haemoglobin for gas transport.

16
Q

What is the name for RBC formation?

A

Erythropoiesis

17
Q

What are the features of leukocytes (WBC)?

A

Nucleated
Larger than RBC
Involved in defence against pathogens

18
Q

What are the features of neutrophils?

A

68% of WBC
Half life of 6 hours
Phagocytic
Can entrap bacteria in extracellular traps
Can phagocytose up to 20 times before death.

19
Q

What are the features of eosinophils?

A

1.5% of WBC but increase rapidly during an allergic response

Attach pathogens which are too big for neutrophils

20
Q

What are the features of basophils?

A

Release histamine and heparin

Trigger inflammation

21
Q

What are the features of monocytes?

A

Largest WBC

Lifespan of about 72 hours before moving to spleen, liver, lungs or lymph nodes

22
Q

What are the features of macrophages?

A

Mature monocytes
Stays in connective tissue for up to 3 months
Can phagocytose up to 100 bacteria before death

23
Q

What are the features of lymphocytes?

A

Key constitutes of the adaptive immune system

B cells and T cells

24
Q

All blood cells do ______ immune system and are unspecific.

A

Innate

25
Q

What is leukopoiesis?

A

WBC formation which is more complex than that of RBC and is controlled by a mixture of cytokines.

26
Q

Where are the 3 places cytokines can be released from?

A

Endothelial cells
Fibroblasts
Mature WBC

27
Q

What happens when there is an a. bacterial infection or b. viral infection?

A

Increase neutrophils

Increase lymphocytes

28
Q

What are the features of platelets?

A

Membrane bound cell fragments
Rarely nucleated
Life span of 10 days
Adhere to damaged vessel walls and exposed connective tissue

29
Q

What makes WBC appear yellowish?

A

Bilirubin

30
Q

Define viscosity.

A

How thick/sticky blood is compared to water.