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What is the round shape of the gluteal region due to?

Gluteus maximus


What does the gluteal fold mark?

inferior border of gluteus maximus

marks boundary between gluteal and posterior thigh regions


Which muscles contribute to the quadriceps?

1. rectus femoris
2. vastus lateralis
3. vastus intermedius


Which 3 quadriceps are visible on the anterior surface of the thigh?

1. vastus lateralis
2. vastus medialis
3. rectus femoris


Visible tendons on the foot are?

1. tibialis anterior tendon
2. extensor hallucis longus tendon
3. extensor digitorum longus


Why are bony landmarks vital during physical examinations and surgery?

1. evaluate normal development
2. detect and assess fractures/dislocations
3. locate blood vessels, nerves etc


What is the most prominent surface feature of the pelvic girdle and where does it run?

iliac crest

runs from ASIS to PSIS


Why is the PSIS difficult to palpate and how are they located ?

as they are normally covered by fat

located by permanent skin dimples lateral to the midline caused by attachment of the overlying fascia to the PSIS


What passes through the S2 spinous process and joins the dimples and where else does the line pass through?

a line

through the middle of the sacroiliac joints

and bifurcation of the iliac arteries


What structure within the vertebral canal terminates at this level (S2)?

filum terminale


What is the name of a line that joins the highest points of the iliac crests and passes through the intervertebral disc between L4 and L5?

supracristal plane


What landmark is used for lumbar puncture?

L4 and L5 - supracristal plane


Where can the tibia be palpated?

throughout the length of the leg

particularly prominent on the anteromedial surface of the leg - where it is only covered by skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous fat


Where is the fibula palpable?

only palpable at proximal and distal ends - head of fibula and lateral malleolus


What is the femoral triangle?

important area located on the anterior thigh - contains neuromuscular structures


How is the femoral artery used by clinicians?

used by interventional radiologists to access arterial system

insert catheters and stents into arteries all over the body - coronary and carotid arteries

arterial line


Boundaries of the femoral triangle

superior - inguinal ligament

lateral - medial border of sartorius muscle

medial - adductor longus muscle

roof - fascia kata

base - pectineus, iliopsoas and adductor longus


contents of femoral triangle

femoral nerve

femoral artery

femoral vein




Contents of the popliteal fossa

1. popliteal vein

2. popliteal artery

3. tibial nerve

Serve - Sartorius

And - Artery

Volley - Vein

Next - Nevre

Ball - Biceps femoris

medial to lateral


Where does the common fibular nerve wrap around?

neck of fibula


What are 4 important pulse points routinely used in clinical examinations?

1. femoral pulse point

2. popliteal pulse point

3. posterior tibial pulse point

4. dorsalis pedis pulse point


Where is the femoral pulse palpated?

half way between ASIS and pubic tubercle

slightly inferior to the inguinal ligament


Where can you palpate the pulse of the popliteal artery and what is done to aid palpation?

popliteal fossa

aid - knee flexed and foot resting on ground/couch to relax the hamstrings


Where can the pulse of the posterior tibial artery be palpated?

posterior to the medial malleolus


Where can the dorsal is pedis artery be palpated?

lateral to the tendon of extensor hallucis longs


Why is it necessary to palpate all pulse points of the lower limb on examination?

to identify sufficient blood supply and perfusion


Where do the superficial veins of the lower limbs originate from?

dorsal venous arch of the foot


Course and drainage of the venous system of the lower limb

1. dorsal venous arch
2. medial side and lateral side

Medial side

1. superiorly and anterior to the medial malleolus
2. great saphenous vein

Lateral side

1. Posterior to the lateral malleolus and up posterior surface of the leg as the small saphenous vein
2. popliteal vein


What is the name given to swollen and enlarged veins with valves that no longer work?

Varicose veins



know dermatomes