Living anatomy of the lower limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Living anatomy of the lower limb Deck (48):
1

What is the round shape of the gluteal region due to?

Gluteus maximus

2

What does the gluteal fold mark?

inferior border of gluteus maximus

marks boundary between gluteal and posterior thigh regions

3

Which muscles contribute to the quadriceps?

1. rectus femoris
2. vastus lateralis
3. vastus intermedius

4

Which 3 quadriceps are visible on the anterior surface of the thigh?

1. vastus lateralis
2. vastus medialis
3. rectus femoris

5

Visible tendons on the foot are?

1. tibialis anterior tendon
2. extensor hallucis longus tendon
3. extensor digitorum longus

6

Why are bony landmarks vital during physical examinations and surgery?

1. evaluate normal development
2. detect and assess fractures/dislocations
3. locate blood vessels, nerves etc

7

What is the most prominent surface feature of the pelvic girdle and where does it run?

iliac crest

runs from ASIS to PSIS

8

Why is the PSIS difficult to palpate and how are they located ?

as they are normally covered by fat

located by permanent skin dimples lateral to the midline caused by attachment of the overlying fascia to the PSIS

9

What passes through the S2 spinous process and joins the dimples and where else does the line pass through?

a line

through the middle of the sacroiliac joints

and bifurcation of the iliac arteries

10

What structure within the vertebral canal terminates at this level (S2)?

filum terminale

11

What is the name of a line that joins the highest points of the iliac crests and passes through the intervertebral disc between L4 and L5?

supracristal plane

12

What landmark is used for lumbar puncture?

L4 and L5 - supracristal plane

13

Where can the tibia be palpated?

throughout the length of the leg

particularly prominent on the anteromedial surface of the leg - where it is only covered by skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous fat

14

Where is the fibula palpable?

only palpable at proximal and distal ends - head of fibula and lateral malleolus

15

What is the femoral triangle?

important area located on the anterior thigh - contains neuromuscular structures

16

How is the femoral artery used by clinicians?

used by interventional radiologists to access arterial system

insert catheters and stents into arteries all over the body - coronary and carotid arteries

arterial line

17

Boundaries of the femoral triangle

superior - inguinal ligament

lateral - medial border of sartorius muscle

medial - adductor longus muscle

roof - fascia kata

base - pectineus, iliopsoas and adductor longus

18

contents of femoral triangle

femoral nerve

femoral artery

femoral vein

lymphatics

NAVEL

19

Contents of the popliteal fossa

1. popliteal vein

2. popliteal artery

3. tibial nerve

Serve - Sartorius

And - Artery

Volley - Vein

Next - Nevre

Ball - Biceps femoris

medial to lateral

20

Where does the common fibular nerve wrap around?

neck of fibula

21

What are 4 important pulse points routinely used in clinical examinations?

1. femoral pulse point

2. popliteal pulse point

3. posterior tibial pulse point

4. dorsalis pedis pulse point

22

Where is the femoral pulse palpated?

half way between ASIS and pubic tubercle

slightly inferior to the inguinal ligament

23

Where can you palpate the pulse of the popliteal artery and what is done to aid palpation?

popliteal fossa

aid - knee flexed and foot resting on ground/couch to relax the hamstrings

24

Where can the pulse of the posterior tibial artery be palpated?

posterior to the medial malleolus

25

Where can the dorsal is pedis artery be palpated?

lateral to the tendon of extensor hallucis longs

26

Why is it necessary to palpate all pulse points of the lower limb on examination?

to identify sufficient blood supply and perfusion

27

Where do the superficial veins of the lower limbs originate from?

dorsal venous arch of the foot

28

Course and drainage of the venous system of the lower limb

1. dorsal venous arch
2. medial side and lateral side

Medial side

1. superiorly and anterior to the medial malleolus
2. great saphenous vein

Lateral side

1. Posterior to the lateral malleolus and up posterior surface of the leg as the small saphenous vein
2. popliteal vein

29

What is the name given to swollen and enlarged veins with valves that no longer work?

Varicose veins

30

NOTE

know dermatomes

31

NOTE

know myotomes

32

Lateral external hip rotation

L5 and L1

33

Medial internal hip rotation

L1, L2 and L3

34

Abduction of hip

L5 and S1

35

Adduction of hip

L1, L2, L3 and L4

36

Inversion of foot (subtalar)

L4 and L5

37

Eversion of foot (subtalar)

L5 and S1

38

Dorsiflexion of metatarsophalangeal and phalangeal

L5 and S1

39

Plantarflexion of metatarsophalangeal and phalangeal

S1 and S2

40

Flexion of hip

L2 and L3

41

Extension of hip

L4 and L5

42

Extension of knee

L3 and L4

43

Flexion of knee

L5 and S1

44

Dorsiflexion of ankle

L4 and L5

45

Plantarflexion of ankle

S1 and S2

46

What reflexes can be tested?

ankle reflex

knee reflex

47

What ligament is tapped with a hammer and causes a knee reflex and what movement should you expect?

patella ligament

expect extension of leg at knee joint

48

How do you carry out an ankle reflex and what movement would you expect?

push the foot into dorsiflexed position

tap the calcaneal tendon superior to it's insertion on the calcaneal bone

plantarflexion