Anatomy of the vertebral column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the vertebral column Deck (102)
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1
Q
What does the back include? (7)
A
1. Skin
2.Subcutaneous tissue
3. Vertebral column
4. Spinal cord and meninges
5. Ribs
6.Nerves and vessels
7. Muscles
2
Q
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
A
7 (C1-C7)
3
Q
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
A
12 (T1-T12)
4
Q
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
A
5 (L1-L5)
5
Q
How many sacral vertebrae are there?
A
5 (S1-S5)
6
Q
How many bones are there in the coccygeal/coccyx region?
A
4 (small tightly fused bones)
7
Q
Why do you become shorter when you are older?
A
-the intervertebral disks shrink as they become dehydrated
8
Q
What is involved in the general structure of a vertebra? (5)
A
1. body
2. vertebral arch --> pedicles and laminae
3. articular facets --> superior (x2) and inferior (x2)
4. Processes - transverse (x2) and spinous
5. vertebral foramen
9
Q
What part of the vertebra is the weight bearing portion?
A
body
10
Q
How many superior facets are there?
A
2
11
Q
How many inferior facets are there?
A
2
12
Q
How many transverse processes are there?
A
2
13
Q
What runs through the vertebral foramen? (3)
A
1. spinal cord
2. meninges
3. CSF
14
Q
What is the vertebral arch made up of? (2)
A
1. pedicles
2. Laminae
15
Q
What are the 2 main types of processes in vertebra?
A
1. transverse
2. spinous
16
Q
What runs through the intervertebral foramen?
A
- spinal nerve
17
Q
Where are the vertebral notches?
A
-superior and inferior to the pedicles
18
Q
What forms the intervertebral foramen? (2)
A
1. superior and inferior vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae
2. intervertebral disc
19
Q
What is the body of a cervical vertebra like? (2)
A
1. small
2. with elevated uncus
20
Q
What are the transverse process and pedicles like in cervical vertebra?
A
- have tubercles anterior and posteriorly
21
Q
What foramina are involved in cervical vertebrae?
A
- transverse foramina
22
Q
What is the uncus of the body of the cervical vertebra?
A
- edges which unite vertebral bodies together
23
Q
What is the spinous process of cervical vertebra like?
A
-BIFID (splits into 2)
24
Q
Why is the body of cervical vertebra thin and small?
A
- for fine positioning and movement of the head
25
Q
What passes through transverse foramina?
A
- vertebral arteries and veins
26
Q
What is the cervical function of the foramina transversaria?
A
- allows passage of vertebral artery and vein to the brain
27
Q
Which cervical level do the vertebral arteries and veins not pass through?
A
C7
28
Q
Why is dislocation of the cervical vertebrae likely?
A
- as the articular facets are FLAT
- hence here is not much bony congruity
29
Q
What is the varying severity of dislocation of cervical vertebra?
A
1. Flexion sprain
2. 25% subluxation
3. 50% sublaxation
4. Complete dislocation - facet jumping
30
Q
What is complete dislocation also known as?
A
facet jumping
31
Q
Why might sublaxation in cervical vertebra not compress the spinal cord?
A
as vertebral foramen is relatively wide
32
Q
What are the 2 atypical cervical vertebrae?
A
- C1 - Atlas
- C2 - Axis
33
Q
What does the atlas (C1) not have? (2)
A
1. spinous process
2. Body
34
Q
What arches does Atlas (C1) contain?
A
- anterior and posterior arches
35
Q
What do the anterior and posterior arches on the atlas have?
A
- tubercle
-lateral mass
36
Q
What is the tubercles on the medial surface of the lateral mass for?
A
- transverse ligament
37
Q
What does the transverse ligament do?
A
- holds in place the dens of the axis
38
Q
What does the atlas (C1) articulate with?
A
- the base of the skull
39
Q
How many large surfaces does the axis (C2) have?
A
2
40
Q
What does the atlas rotate upon on the axis?
A
- superior articular facets
41
Q
What is the distinguishing feature of the axis?
A
dens
42
Q
What is the dens also known as?
A
odontoid process
43
Q
Why does the transverse ligament of the atlas hold the dens in place?
A
to prevent horizontal displacement of the atlas
44
Q
What does the dens do?
A
- allows the atlas to act as pivot
- allows the atlas to attach the head and enable it to move from side to side
45
Q
Why is the dens prone to fracture?
A
the bone of the dens is less dense
46
Q
What causes fracture of the dens? (2)
A
- hyperextension
- hyperflexion
47
Q
Why is the spinal cord not usually affected in the fracture of the dens?
A
- as the dens is held in place via the transverse ligament of the atlas
48
Q
What percentage of dens fractures results in non-union?
A
30-50%
49
Q
What is the treatment for non-union dens fractures?
A
-atlantoaxis arthrodesis
-using bone graft from iliac crest
50
Q
What is the vertebral body of thoracic vertebra like? (2)
A
- heart shaped
-superior and inferior costal demi-facets
51
Q
In thoracic vertebra what do the superior and inferior costal demi facets articulate with?
A
-head of rib
52
Q
What is the spinous process of thoracic vertebra like?
A
- long
- extends postero-inferiorly
53
Q
In thoracic vertebra what does the transverse process articulate with?
A
tubercle of the rib
54
Q
How does the superior articular facet face in thoracic veterbra?
A
posteriorly
55
Q
How does the inferior articular facet face in thoracic vertebra?
A
anteriorly
56
Q
Explain the costovertebral joints (ribs and demifacets articulations)?
A
- head of rib articulates with the superior demi facet of the corresponding (same number) vertebra
-and articulates with the inferior dmeifacet of the vertebra above
57
Q
What is the vertebral body like in the lumbar region?
A
-large
58
Q
Which way do the superior articular facets face in the lumbar vertebrae?
A
medially
59
Q
Which way does the inferior articular facets face in the lumbar vertebrae?
A
laterally
60
Q
What is the spinous process like in the lumbar vertebrae?
A
short and sturdy
61
Q
What are the transverse processes like in the lumbar region and why are they like that?
A
not big - as they don;t have to articulate with something like the rib
62
Q
What is the vertebra of the sacrum like?
A
fused
63
Q
What passes through foramina of the sacrum?
A
spinal nerves
64
Q
Where do the foramina in the sacrum lie?
A
anteriorly and posteriorly
65
Q
What is the vertebrae held together by? (3)
A
1. zygapophysial joints
2. intervertebral discs
3. intervertebral ligaments
66
Q
Where does the zygapophysial joints occur?
A
between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
67
Q
What is the movement like in zygapophysial joints and what does it allow to do?
A
-limited
- lateral extension and flexion
68
Q
What does orientation of articular facets determine?
A
- types of movements that are possible
69
Q
Where do the intervertebral discs lie?
A
between vertebral bodies
70
Q
What is the intervertebral disc made up of? (2)
A
1. annulus fibrosis
2.nucleus pulposus
71
Q
What is the annulus fibrosis of the intervertebral disc?
A
-a fibrocartilage ring attached to epiphyseal rim of the vertebral body - very tough
- it is the outer ring
72
Q
What is the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc?
A
gelatinous substance that acts as shock absorber
73
Q
What is the nucleus pulpous rich in and what does do and act as?
A
-water
-acts as a rubber bouncy board
-shock absorber
-enables the vertebra to tilt
- allows slight movement only
74
Q
What does the thickness of the intervertebral disc determine?
A
flexibility of the veterbra

- the thicker the vertebral discs the more movement of the vertebra as more compression of the intervertebral disc is allowed.
75
Q
What are the ligaments of the vertebral column? (6)
A
1. ligamentum flavum
2.Posterior longitudinal ligament
3. Anterior longitudinal ligament
4. Interspinous ligament
5. Supraspinous ligament
6. Intertransverse ligament
76
Q
What do the ligaments of the vertebral column allow resistance to?
A
-hyperflexion and hyperextension of the vertebral column
77
Q
What does the ligamentum flavum of the vertebral column bind to?
A
lamina of adjacent vertebra
78
Q
What does the posterior longitudinal ligament bind to and what is it's function in the vertebral column?
A
- C2 to sacrum
- prevents posterior herniation of IV discs
79
Q
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column attach to?
A
- occipital bone and C1 to sacrum
80
Q
Which ligament is resistant to hyperextension of vertebral column? (1)
A
Anterior longitudinal ligament
81
Q
Which ligaments are resistant to hyper flexion? (2)
A
all the others apart from anterior longitudinal ligament
82
Q
What happens in whiplash?
A
hyperextension of the cervical neck
83
Q
What is whiplash commonly caused by?
A
- rear end car crashes
-esp if the head rest is too low
84
Q
Which ligament in whiplash is torn/ stretched?
A
anterior longitudinal ligament
85
Q
What can happen in severe cases of whiplash?
A
- part of the vertebral body is avulsed
- hence vertebra can dislocate
- this may cause the compression of the spinal cord
86
Q
What are the movements of the vertebral column?
A
1. extension/flexion
2. lateral flexion
3. rotation
87
Q
Why may movements vary in different regions of the vertebra?
A
- due to orientation of zygapophysial joints
- and thickness of intervertebral discs
88
Q
What are the curvatures of the vertebral column?
A
- thoracic and sacral kyphosis
- cervical and lumbar lordosis
89
Q
When are primary curvatures present?
A
since in foetus - never changes in life
90
Q
Where are secondary curvatures present?
A
develop later - changes shape during life
91
Q
What are the abnormal curvatures? (3)
A
1. Excessive kyphosis (bent too forwards)
2. Excessive lordosis (bend too backwards)
3. Scoliosis (wonky)
92
Q
What group of people is osteoporosis most common in?
A
- post menopausal women
- due to decreased oestrogen - which protects bones
93
Q
What happens in osteoporosis?
A
- loss of trabecular in bones
94
Q
What type of fracture happen as a result of osteoporosis in vertebral column?
A
- compression fracture
95
Q
Why do surgeons sometimes leave ovaries in a hysterectomy?
A
- so that oestrogen is still produced to protect the bones
96
Q
What are the effects of ageing on the vertebrae?
A
- loss of bone density leading to concave vertebral bodies
- osteophytes develop in response to increased for ce on the rims of the vertebrae
97
Q
What may ageing do to the intervertebral discs?
A
- herniation of nucleus pulpous (slipped discs)
98
Q
What direction does herniation nucleus pulposus usually happen in and between which vertebral levels?
A
- posterolateral
-between L4/5 or L5/S1
99
Q
What can compression of spinal nerve roots caused by herniation of nucleus pulposus result in?
A
- lower back pain or sciatica
100
Q
What can happen in severe cases of herniation of nucleus pulposus?
A
- compression of most of the caudal equine
- this is called caudal equine syndrome
101
Q
What is sciatica?
A
- compression of the sciatic nerve due to nucleus pulposus/ slipped disc
- this results in numbness which runs til below the knee
102
Q
Why does ageing cause herniation of nucleus pulposus?
A
- increase pressure on the vertebral column due to dehydration and loss in structure