Lower limb 1 - The gluteal region and hip joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower limb 1 - The gluteal region and hip joint Deck (26)
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1
Q
What forms the pelvic girdle and what do they provide?
A
2 hip (innominate) bones and sacrum

provides - strong stable support for lower limbs
2
Q
Where does each innominate bone articulate with the sacrum posteriorly?
A
at the sacra-ilio joint
3
Q
Where does each innominate bone articulate with anteriorly?
A
pubic symphysis
4
Q
Which 3 bones is the innominate bone derived from and what is the point where these 3 bones eventually fuse?
A
1. ilium
2. ischium
3. pubic

acetabulum
5
Q
What is the difference between a male and female pelvis?
A
Male

1. pelvic inlet - heart shaped
2. angle of 2 arms of pubic arch - small and acute
3. ischial spines - project medially

Female - big enough to pass baby head

1. pelvic inlet - circular
2. angle of 2 arms of pubic arch - larger and obtuse
3. ischial spines don't project far medially
6
Q
What type of cartilaginous joint is the pubic symphysis and what is it between?
A
secondary cartilaginous joint

between the 2 pubic bones
7
Q
What is the articular surface of the pubic symphysis covered by and what is it connected by?
A
articular surface - hyaline cartilage

connected by - fibrocartilaginous disc
8
Q
What are the functions of the pelvis?
A
1. bear weight of the upper body when sitting and standing
2. transferring weight from axial skeleton to lower appendicular skeleton when walking and standing
3. provides attachments
4. withstand forces of powerful muscles

STRONG

STABLE

SUPPORT WEIGHT

PROTECT ORGANS AND VESSELS
9
Q
What is the pelvic girdle strengthened by?
A
ligaments attaching to the ischium of the innominate bone

1. sacrotuberous ligament - ischial tuberosity
2. sacrospinous ligament - ischial spine
10
Q
What does the acetabulum of the innominate bone articulate with in order to form the hip joint?
A
head of femur
11
Q
What type of joint is the hip joint?
A
strong

stable

ball and socket joint
12
Q
What movements are possible at the hip joint and what are there corresponding myotomes?
A
flexion - L2,3

extension - L4,5

abduction - L5, S1

adduction - L1,2,3,4

lateral/external rotation - L5, S1

medial/internal rotation - L1,2,3
13
Q
What are the structures that strengthen and stabilise the hip joint?
A
acetabular anatomy

fibrous capsule

ligaments - iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral
14
Q
What are the superficial muscles of the gluteal region?
A
1. gluteus maximus
2. gluteus medius
3. gluteus minimus
4. tensor fascia lata
15
Q
What is the iliotibial tract and what does it do?
A
thickening of fascia kata into a longitudinal band

stabalises knee during running
16
Q
What are the chief abductors at the hip joint?
A
1. gluteus medius and minimus

also prevent pelvis sagging on opposite side
17
Q
Where does the piriformis muscle lie?
A
deep to gluteus maximus
18
Q
Why is the piriformis key?
A
it is key in identification of vessels and nerves which pas through the greater sciatic foramen - superior and inferior to this muscle
19
Q
How does piriformis exit the pelvis to reach the gluteal region?
A
greater sciatic foramen
20
Q
Where does the sciatic nerve emerge from in relation to the piriformis?
A
on lower border of piriformis
21
Q
Why are the gluteal muscles frequently used as a site of intramuscular injection and what must you be wary of when administering these injections?
A
as they are a large mass of muscle

damage to the sciatic nerve
22
Q
Where is a safe place to perform intramuscular injections in the gluteal region?
A
upper outer quadrant of either gluteal region
23
Q
What nerve, artery and vein pass superior to piriformis?
A
superior gluteal nerve

superior gluteal artery

superior gluteal vein
24
Q
What nerves, arteries and veins pass inferior to piriformis?
A
nerves

1. sciatic nerve
2. nerve to quadratus femoris
3. nerve to obturator internus
4. posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh
5. pudendal nerve
6. inferior gluteal nerve
7. perforating cutaneous nerve

artery

1. inferior artery

vein

1. inferior gluteal vein
25
Q
What are the structures that pass through the lesser sciatic foramen?
A
tendon of obturator internus

internal pudendal vessels

pundendal nerve

nerve to obturator internus
26
Q
What are the muscles found in close proximity to the obturator nerve?
A
1. obturator internus
2. superior and inferior gemelli
3. quadartus femoris