Lower limb 4 - The leg Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower limb 4 - The leg Deck (26)
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What is the tibia?

One of the long bones of the leg.

It is triangular in cross section having medial, lateral and posterior surfaces.


Where is the most common sites for acute osteomyelitis?

upper end of tibial shaft


What is acute osetomyelitis?

infection/inflammation of the bone


Why is the tibia the commonest long bone to be fractured and to suffer compound injury?

the shaft of the tibia is subcutaneous and unprotected anteromedially throughout it's course and is particularly slender in its lower third.


Why is the tibia a highly accessible donor site for bone grafts?

Due to it's extensive subcutaneous surface


What is the fibula?

second long bone present in the leg


What is the interosseous membrane? (3)

a form of fibrous joint which unites the tibia and fibula

it separates the muscles of the anterior and posterior compartment of the leg

provides a site for muscle attachment


What is the function of the 2 foramina in the interosseous membrane?

Upper foramina - allows passage of anterior tibial vessels

Lower foramina - allows the passage of anterior perineal vessels


What four muscles are involved in the anterior compartment of the the leg?

1. tibialis anterior
2. extensor digitorum longus
3. extensor hallucis longus
4. fibularis tertius


What is the function of the retinaculum in a limb?

a band structure that holds the organ part in place


What are the anterior compartment muscles primarily involved in?

extension at joints


What is the most medial muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg?

tibialis anterior


What are the extrinsic extensors of the toes?

extensor hallucis longus

extensor digitorum longus


Where is the fibularis (peroneus) tertius found and is it present in all individuals?

deep to extensor hallucis longus


How is the anterior tibial artery exposed?

by retracting the extensor digitorum longus


Where does the anterior tibial artery arise from and where does it pass from?

the popliteal artery

from the posterior and anterior compartment of the leg via a hiatus in the interosseous membrane


What is the deep fibular nerve a branch of and what muscles of which compartment does it innervate?

branch of common fibular nerve

innervates muscles of the anterior compartment


What are the two muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg?

1. fibularis (peroneus) longus
2. fibularis (peroneus) brevis


What are the fibular muscles tightly invested with and where do their tendons pass?

with the deep fascia of the leg

their tendons pass posterior to the lateral malleolus


Why is the common fibular nerve vulnerable to injury?

as it courses around the neck of the fibula which an area that is vulnerable to fracture


What are the consequences of injuring the common fibular nerve at this point? (6)

1. lose ability to dorsiflex foot at ankle joint
2. foot drop (foot appears permanently plantar flexed)
3. foot drop gait
4. loss of sensation over dorsum of foot
5. loss of sensation on lateral side of leg
6. innervation is preserved on medial side of the leg


What is the posterior compartment of the leg divided into and what by?

superficial sub-compartment

deep sub-compartment

by transverse inter muscular septum


What artery and nerve does the deep sub-compartment of the posterior compartment of the leg contain?

posterior tibial artery

tibial nerve


What are the four muscles involved in the deep sub-compartment of the posterior compartment of the leg?

1. popliteus
2. flexor digitorum longus
3. flexor hallucis longus
4. tibialis posterior


Where do the tendons of tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longs pass?

pass posterior to the medial malleolus

order - Tom Dick and Nervous Harry


Where do the tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery pass in relation to the medial malleolus, flexor digitorum longs and flexor hallucis longs?

posterior to medial malleolus

between flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Tom, Dick and Nervous Harry