The Knee joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Knee joint Deck (89)
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1

What are acute injuries to the knee caused by and where do they usually present to?

- sports
- falls
- elderly
- fracture
- tear/sprain of ligaments
- soft tissues
- cartilage

2

What causes acute swelling/ pain?

- atraumatic causes
-acute gout
- flare of Osteo-arthritis
- flare of RA

3

What causes chronic knee pain/ swelling?

- osteoarthritis
- bursitis

4

What can severe knee pain result in?

reduced mobility

poor sleep

reduced quality of life

5

How does chronic knee pain/swelling have to last for in order for it to be classified as chronic?

3-4 months to 1 year

6

What is not associated with the knee joint?

fibula

7

What type of joint is the knee joint?

hinge joint

synovial

8

What 3 bones are involved in the knee joint?

1. distal femur
2. proximal tibia
3. patella

9

How many articulations do the 3 bones involved in the knee joint form?

3 articulations

10

What are the 3 articulations formed in the knee joint?

- 2 femorotibial - medial and lateral
- 1 femoropatellar

11

What is the most proximal part of the tibia like?

flat

12

What are the movements of the knee joint?

- extension/ flexion
- medial/lateral rotation - only a very small amount of rotation

13

Why do you lose knee flexion when the hip is extended?

due to the loss of tension on hamstrings

14

When can rotation occur?

when knee is flexed and collateral ligaments are relaxed

15

What happens when the knee joint approaches full extension?

the femur undergoes a few degrees of medial rotation on the tibia

this is also known as locking

16

What is locking?

joint approaching full extension and causing the femur to undergo a few degrees of medial rotation on the tibia

17

Is locking the knee stable or unstable and why is it so?

it is stable - as thigh muscles can relax

18

How is the knee unlocked?

By the popliteus muscle

19

What does the popliteus muscle do to the femur?

it laterally rotates the femur

20

Where and what is the popliteal fossa?

The space at the back of the knee

21

What runs through the popliteal fossa?

the popliteal artery

22

What are the medial and lateral femoral condyles?

expanded ends of the femur

23

What are the slight expansions of the proximal tibia?

medial and lateral tibial condyles

24

What is the flat surface of the tibia above the condyles known as?

tibial plateau - medial and lateral

25

What is the fit like of the tibial plateau with the rounded femoral condyles and what is the joint described as?

poor fit

incongruent

26

What is the tibial plateaux deepened by?

- 2 plates of fibrocartilage
- the menisci

27

What is stability and congruency like in extension?

most stable

very congruent

28

What is stability and congruency like in flexion?

unstable

least congruent

29

What are the menisci?

2 c shaped wedges of fibrocartilage

30

Where are the menisci thicker?

at the external margins