Flashcards in The Knee joint Deck (89)
What are acute injuries to the knee caused by and where do they usually present to?
- tear/sprain of ligaments
- soft tissues
What causes acute swelling/ pain?
- atraumatic causes
- flare of Osteo-arthritis
- flare of RA
What causes chronic knee pain/ swelling?
What can severe knee pain result in?
reduced quality of life
How does chronic knee pain/swelling have to last for in order for it to be classified as chronic?
3-4 months to 1 year
What is not associated with the knee joint?
What type of joint is the knee joint?
What 3 bones are involved in the knee joint?
1. distal femur
2. proximal tibia
How many articulations do the 3 bones involved in the knee joint form?
What are the 3 articulations formed in the knee joint?
- 2 femorotibial - medial and lateral
- 1 femoropatellar
What is the most proximal part of the tibia like?
What are the movements of the knee joint?
- extension/ flexion
- medial/lateral rotation - only a very small amount of rotation
Why do you lose knee flexion when the hip is extended?
due to the loss of tension on hamstrings
When can rotation occur?
when knee is flexed and collateral ligaments are relaxed
What happens when the knee joint approaches full extension?
the femur undergoes a few degrees of medial rotation on the tibia
this is also known as locking
What is locking?
joint approaching full extension and causing the femur to undergo a few degrees of medial rotation on the tibia
Is locking the knee stable or unstable and why is it so?
it is stable - as thigh muscles can relax
How is the knee unlocked?
By the popliteus muscle
What does the popliteus muscle do to the femur?
it laterally rotates the femur
Where and what is the popliteal fossa?
The space at the back of the knee
What runs through the popliteal fossa?
the popliteal artery
What are the medial and lateral femoral condyles?
expanded ends of the femur
What are the slight expansions of the proximal tibia?
medial and lateral tibial condyles
What is the flat surface of the tibia above the condyles known as?
tibial plateau - medial and lateral
What is the fit like of the tibial plateau with the rounded femoral condyles and what is the joint described as?
What is the tibial plateaux deepened by?
- 2 plates of fibrocartilage
- the menisci
What is stability and congruency like in extension?
What is stability and congruency like in flexion?
What are the menisci?
2 c shaped wedges of fibrocartilage