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1

What are the superior and inferior gluteal arteries branches of?

internal iliac arteries

2

What are the arteries of the gluteal region? (in order of course) (9)

1. superior gluteal
2. inferior gluteal
3. medial femoral circumflex
4. lateral femoral circumflex artery
5. deep artery of the thigh
6. first perforating artery
7. femoral artery
8. second perforating artery
9. third perforating artery

3

What do the arteries around the hip also known as?

cruciate anastomosis

4

Which branches does the cruciate anastomosis involve?

branches of internal iliac and profunda femurs arteries

5

Why is the cruciate anastomosis clinically important?

allows blood to bypass a blockage of the external iliac or proximal femoral arteries

= allows collateral supply

6

What is the artery that supplies the anterior compartment of the thigh, what is it a continuation of and what is it's boundary?

femoral artery

continuation of external iliac artery

boundary - inguinal ligament

7

What are the arteries that supply the posterior compartment of the thigh?

4 perforating arteries

profunda femoris artery

8

What artery supplies the medial compartment of the thigh and what is it a branch of?

obturator artery

internal iliac artery

9

What is the femoral artery called when it enters the popliteal fossa from the anterior compartment of the thigh?

popliteal artery

10

When can pulsation of the popliteal artery be felt?

when knee is flexed

11

What does the genicular anastomosis allow?

maintenance of blood supply to the leg during knee flexion

as knee flexion may impinge the popliteal artery

12

What is the artery of the anterior compartment of the leg and where is it derived from?

anterior tibial artery

terminal branch of popliteal artery

13

What is the artery of the posterior compartment of the leg and where is it derived from?

posterior tibial artery

terminal branch of popliteal artery

14

What is the artery of the lateral compartment of the leg?

fibular artery

branch of posterior tibial artery

15

Where does the femoral artery go through to get to the popliteal fossa to become the popliteal artery?

adductor hiatus

16

What are the arteries of the dorsal aspect of the foot (top of foot) and what is it a continuation of?

dorsalis pedis artery

continuation of anterior tibial artery

17

What are the arteries of the plantar aspect of the foot (sole of the foot) and where are they derived from?

medial and lateral plantar arteries

bifurcation of posterior tibia artery

18

What is the deep plantar arch?

anastomosis of the deep plantar branch of the dorsal is pedis artery with lateral plantar artery

19

What plantar arch is present in only 5% of the population?

superficial plantar arch

20

What is important to do in palpation of lower limb arteries (pulses)?

compare left and right limbs

21

What arteries do you palpate (pulses) in the lower limb? (4)

1. femoral - relatively superficial in groin
2. popliteal - leg in flexion to open up pop fossa and compress it
3. posterior tibial - behind medial malleolus of the ankle
4. dorsalis pedis - anterior aspect of foot over dorsum - gap between 1st and 2nd toes

22

Where is the femoral artery in the femoral triangle?

quite superficial

23

As the femoral artery is quite superficial in the femoral triangle what is it vulnerable to?

injury and laceration

24

The femoral artery is easily accessible in people for what?

for ABG in emergencies if poor peripheral perfusion/pulses

for minimally invasive procedures (catheters):

- coronary angioplasty
- coronary angiography
- embolisation of berry aneurysm

25

What temporary problems can minimal invasive procedures cause?

- false aneurysms
- big haematomas
- bleeding

26

What is peripheral vascular disease (PVD)?

1. arteries of the pelvis and lower limbs affected by atheroscelorosis

27

What can happen in peripheral vascular disease?

the lower limb arteries can become occluded by embolus or thrombus

28

What is acute ischaemia caused by?

acute occlusion by thrombus or emboli

usually by trauma or compartment syndrome

29

How worrying is acute ischaemia of the limb?

a medical emergency

requires urgent revascularisation

30

What is the presentation of acute ischaemic leg? (6Ps)

1. pain - due to anaerobic reps of cells - build up of lactic acid
2. pallor
3. perishingly cold
4. pulseless
5. paraesthesia
6. paralysis