Lower limb 3 - anterior and medial compartments of the thigh Flashcards Preview

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What 3 articulations does the knee joint consist of between the distal end of the femur, tibia and patella?

1. medial femerotibial
2. lateral femerotibial
3. femeropatellar


What bone does not take part in the knee joint?



What is the patella?

- a triangular sesamoid bone that develops the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.


What are the regions of the patella?

- base
- apex
- 2 surfaces - articular and anterior
- 2 facets


How does the vastus medialis prevent the patella being pulled too laterally?

It pulls at a more oblique angle than the other 3 quadriceps


What is the other mechanism that prevents the patella from being pulled too far laterally?

lateral femoral condyle - bony ridge


What happens if the lateral femoral condyle is underdeveloped?

recurrent dislocations of the patella


What happens to the patella if there is a direct blow to it and why is it not avulsed?

the patella may split or shatter

not avulsed - as quadricep expansion remains in tact


What is avulsion?

full detachment


Why is the knee joint dependent on the strength of surrounding muscles, ligaments and menisci for stability?

as the knee joint is incongruent


What opening does the long (great) saphenous vein pass through the deep fascia?

saphenous hiatus or saphenous opening


What superficial veins do you need to know?

1. femoral vein
2. saphenous ring
3. great saphenous vein
4. lateral side
5. dorsal venous arch
6. small saphenous vein
7. popliteal vein


What provides a transient route through the thigh for the major vessels passing to and from the leg? (3)

1. femoral triangle
2. adductor canal
3. popliteal fossa


Why is the anatomy of the femoral triangle important clinically? (4)

1. vascular access
2. femoral hernia
3. vascualr surgery
4. lymphatic spread of disease


What are the borders of the femoral triangle?

Base - inguinal ligament

medial border - adductor longus

lateral border - sartonius muscle

floor - pectinous, adductor longs and iliopsoas

apex - fascia canal/ adductor canal


What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

femoral nerve, vein and artery and lymphatics

NAVEL - order seen


What muscles are supplied by the femoral nerve?

mainly anterior compartment of the thigh muscles

1. sartorius
2. pectineus
3. rectus femoris
4. vastus medialis
5. vastus lateralis
6. vastus intermedius


What is the adductor canal?

carries femoral vessels

carries saphenous nerve

between femoral triangle and popliteal fossa


What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?

anterior - sartorius

posteromedially - adductor longs and magnus

laterally - vastus medialis


In which compartment are the quadricep muscles in?



In which compartment are the pectinous and iliopsoas muscles?



What muscles are involved in the medial compartment of the thigh and where do they all arise from?

arise - external surface of pubis and ischiopubic rams

1. adductor longus
2. adductor brevis
3. adductor magnus
4. gracilis
5. obturator externus


Where is the adductor hiatus located?

between hamstring and adductor parts of adductor magnus