Lower limb 3 - anterior and medial compartments of the thigh Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower limb 3 - anterior and medial compartments of the thigh Deck (23)
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1
Q
What 3 articulations does the knee joint consist of between the distal end of the femur, tibia and patella?
A
1. medial femerotibial
2. lateral femerotibial
3. femeropatellar
2
Q
What bone does not take part in the knee joint?
A
fibula
3
Q
What is the patella?
A
- a triangular sesamoid bone that develops the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
4
Q
What are the regions of the patella?
A
- base
- apex
- 2 surfaces - articular and anterior
- 2 facets
5
Q
How does the vastus medialis prevent the patella being pulled too laterally?
A
It pulls at a more oblique angle than the other 3 quadriceps
6
Q
What is the other mechanism that prevents the patella from being pulled too far laterally?
A
lateral femoral condyle - bony ridge
7
Q
What happens if the lateral femoral condyle is underdeveloped?
A
recurrent dislocations of the patella
8
Q
What happens to the patella if there is a direct blow to it and why is it not avulsed?
A
the patella may split or shatter

not avulsed - as quadricep expansion remains in tact
9
Q
What is avulsion?
A
full detachment
10
Q
Why is the knee joint dependent on the strength of surrounding muscles, ligaments and menisci for stability?
A
as the knee joint is incongruent
11
Q
What opening does the long (great) saphenous vein pass through the deep fascia?
A
saphenous hiatus or saphenous opening
12
Q
What superficial veins do you need to know?
A
1. femoral vein
2. saphenous ring
3. great saphenous vein
4. lateral side
5. dorsal venous arch
6. small saphenous vein
7. popliteal vein
13
Q
What provides a transient route through the thigh for the major vessels passing to and from the leg? (3)
A
1. femoral triangle
2. adductor canal
3. popliteal fossa
14
Q
Why is the anatomy of the femoral triangle important clinically? (4)
A
1. vascular access
2. femoral hernia
3. vascualr surgery
4. lymphatic spread of disease
15
Q
What are the borders of the femoral triangle?
A
Base - inguinal ligament

medial border - adductor longus

lateral border - sartonius muscle

floor - pectinous, adductor longs and iliopsoas

apex - fascia canal/ adductor canal
16
Q
What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
A
femoral nerve, vein and artery and lymphatics

NAVEL - order seen
17
Q
What muscles are supplied by the femoral nerve?
A
mainly anterior compartment of the thigh muscles

1. sartorius
2. pectineus
3. rectus femoris
4. vastus medialis
5. vastus lateralis
6. vastus intermedius
18
Q
What is the adductor canal?
A
carries femoral vessels

carries saphenous nerve

between femoral triangle and popliteal fossa
19
Q
What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?
A
anterior - sartorius

posteromedially - adductor longs and magnus

laterally - vastus medialis
20
Q
In which compartment are the quadricep muscles in?
A
anterior
21
Q
In which compartment are the pectinous and iliopsoas muscles?
A
anterior
22
Q
What muscles are involved in the medial compartment of the thigh and where do they all arise from?
A
arise - external surface of pubis and ischiopubic rams

1. adductor longus
2. adductor brevis
3. adductor magnus
4. gracilis
5. obturator externus
23
Q
Where is the adductor hiatus located?
A
between hamstring and adductor parts of adductor magnus