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Flashcards in Radiology Deck (32):
1

What does CT stand for?

computed topography

2

What does MRI stand for?

magnetic resonance imaging

3

What imagery shows vessels?

angiography

4

What should you be able to recognise in a CT?

1. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) -stroke
2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage
3. Extradural haematoma

5

NOTE

horizontal CT and MRI scans are viewed from below

6

What are the main differences between CT and MRI?

CT

1. X rays
2. High radiation
3. Bone

MRI

1. Magnets
2. Soft tissue

7

When is CT commonly used?

Acute cases

View Bone

8

When are MRIs useful?

soft tissue definition

9

On CT what appears hyper dense (bright)?

blood

10

On CT what appears hypo dense (dark)?

oedema

11

On T1 weighted MRI what appears hyper dense (bright)?

Fat

12

On T1 weighted MRI what appears hypo dense (dark)?

Fluid

13

On T2 weighted MRI what appears hyper dense (bright)?

Fluid

14

On T2 weighted MRI what appears hypo dense (dark)?

Fat

15

What are the 3 cerebral arteries?

1. middle cerebral artery
2. posterior cerebral artery
3. anterior cerebral artery

16

What region of the brain does the middle cerebral artery supply?

frontal lobe

lateral surface of temporal lobe

parietal lobe - primary motor and sensory areas of the face

17

What region of the brain does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

occipital lobe

18

What region of the brain does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

medial portions of the frontal lobes

superior medial parietal lobe

19

In terms of stroke syndromes what does TACI stand for?

total anterior circulation infarct

20

In terms of stroke syndromes what does PACI stand for?

partial anterior circulation infarct

21

In terms of stroke syndromes what does POCI stand for?

posterior circulation infarct

22

What is a lacunar stroke?

stroke that results from occlusion from one of the penetrating arteries that provides blood to the deep structures of the brain.

23

What does an infarct usually look like on a CT?

oedema - dark patch - usually ischaemic stroke

24

What is the treatment for ischaemic stroke?

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) to dissolve thrombus

25

What are the anatomical components of the basal ganglia?

caudate nucelus

putamen

ventral striatum

globus pallidus

ventral pallidum

substantia niagra

subthalamic nucleus

26

What is a subarachanoid haemorrhage and which vessels are usually involved?

bleeding into the subarachnoid space

-terminal internal carotid artery
-anterior cerebral artery
- middle cerebral artery

27

What is a subdural haemorrhage and which vessel is usually affected?

blood gathers in subdural haemorrhage

increases intracranial pressure

- middle meningeal artery

28

What is the extradural haemorrhage and which vessel does it usually affect?

collection of blood between dura and periosteum

- middle meningeal artery

29

What is the characteristic of extradural haemorrhage?

unconsciousness and trauma

30

What can happen in an extradural haemorrhage - especially to the ventricles?

they become squished together

31

What is the neurosurgical emergency in extradural haemorrhage?

Burr Hole - artificial hole in the skull to relieve pressure

32

What is a contre-coup injury?

subdural with subarachnoid extension