Lower limb 2 - Posterior thigh and popliteal fossa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower limb 2 - Posterior thigh and popliteal fossa Deck (28)
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1
Q
What does the femur consist of?
A
robust shaft

2 complex expanded articular ends
2
Q
What does the femur articulate with?
A
acetabulum and distally with the tibia
3
Q
What is the proximal head of the femur like and what does it join to?
A
has a spherical head

joined to shaft of the femur by the neck
4
Q
In what direction does the daft of the femur pass as it approaches the femur of the opposite thigh?
A
medially
5
Q
What is the femoral shaft like generally and what is the exception?
A
generally - cylindrical and smooth

except for - linea aspera
6
Q
What is the linea aspera and what does it form the attachment sites for?
A
a pair of ridges that run longitudinally along the dorsal surface

attachment site - for several muscles of the thigh
7
Q
NOTE
A
make sure you know all the bony prominences on femur
8
Q
What is the fascia lata?
A
a layer of deep fascia which surrounds the muscles of the thigh
9
Q
What does the fascia lata form and what do they attach to and what 3 compartments do they divide the muscles of the thigh into?
A
1. forms - 3 inter muscular septa
2. 3 inter muscular septa attach to linea aspera
3. 3 compartments:

- anterior extensor
-posterior flexor
-medial adductor
10
Q
What muscles make up the hamstring?
A
1. semimembranosus
2. semitendinosus
3. biceps femoris - long head
11
Q
What do the 3 muscles of the hamstring share in common?
A
- the same proximal attachment
- and same innervation
12
Q
What is the proximal attachment and innervation of the 3 muscles of the hamstring?
A
proximal attachment - ischial tuberosity

innervation - sciatic nerve
13
Q
What are the distal insertions of the hamstrings?
A
biceps femoris - head of fibula

semitendinosus - media surface of the proximal tibia

semimembranosus - groove and adjacent bone on medial posterior surface of medial head of medial tibial condyle
14
Q
Why is the short head of biceps femoris not considered as one of the hamstring muscles?
A
it doesn't share the common proximal attachment and innervation
15
Q
What are the attachments and innervation of the short head of biceps femoris?
A
attachment - lateral lip of linea aspera

insertion - head of fibula

innervation - sciatic nerve
16
Q
What is the function of the biceps femoris?
A
laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

flexes leg at knee joint
17
Q
What is the function of semitendinosus?
A
medially rotates thigh at hip joint

flexes leg at knee joint
18
Q
What is the function of semimembranosus?
A
extends thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh

flexes leg at knee joint
19
Q
Which compartment is the adductor magnus in?
A
medial compartment
20
Q
What can the adductor magnus be divided into?
A
1. hamstrings
2. adductor part
21
Q
What is the nerve and proximal attachment of the adductor part of the adductor magnus?
A
1. obturator nerve
2. ischiopubic ramus
22
Q
What is the nerve and proximal attachment of the hamstring part of the adductor magnus?
A
sciatic nerve

ischial tuberosity
23
Q
Why is the hamstring part of the adductor magnus considered to be part of the hamstrings?
A
same origin/ proximal attachment of ischial tuberosity as the other hamstrings
24
Q
What does the sciatic nerve divide into and where do they both enter?
A
common fibular/peroneal - laterally

tibial nerves - medially

popliteal fossa
25
Q
What is the popliteal fossa?
A
a diamond shaped depression located on the posterior aspect of the knee.
26
Q
What are the borders of the popliteal fossa?
A
superomedially - semitendinosus and semimembranosus

superolaterally - biceps femoris

inferomedially - medial head gastrocnemius

inferolaterally - lateral head of gastrocnemius

27
Q
What forms the roof and floor of the popliteal fossa?
A
roof - popliteal fascia and skin

floor - posterior surface of knee joint capsule and femur
28
Q
What do plantaris and gastrocnemius do?
A
flexor of knee

plantar flexor of ankle joint