The Pelvis and hip joint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy term 2 > The Pelvis and hip joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Pelvis and hip joint Deck (71):
1

What does the pelvic girdle connects?

- vertebral column to the femurs

2

How is the pelvic girdle different to the shoulder girdle?

- much stronger and less flexible

3

How many bones are there in the pelvic girdle and what are there?

3 bones

-left hip bone
- right hip bone
- sacrum

4

How many joints are there in the pelvic girdle and what are they?

- 2 sacroiliac joints
- pubic symphysis joint

5

What is the role of the pelvic girdle?

- strong and stable
- supports weight of the body
- protects organs and blood vessels

6

What is the real life position of the pelvic girdle (how is it positioned in the body)?

- it is slightly tipped forwards
- like a bowl tipped forwards

7

What is another word for the hip bone?

the innominate bone

8

What are the three sections the innominate bone/hip bone is divided into?

1. ilium
2. ischium
3. pubis

9

How do the ilium, ischium and pubic parts of the bone develop?

separately

10

What is the name of the area where the ilium, ischium and pubis fuse?

Acetabulum

11

What is the acetabulum?

the socket that articulates with the femoral head - forming the hip joint (holds the head of the femur)

12

What is the ilium made up of?

Ala and body

13

Where is the triradiate cartilage?

made up of 3 cartilages and is in the acetabulum.

14

What type of joint is the hip joint? (2)

1.ball and socket joint

2.synovial joint

15

Where is the hip joint?

between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the innominate bone

16

How is stability provided by the hip joint? (3)

1. Acetabular anatomy
2. Fibrous capsule
3. Ligaments

17

What are the ligaments of the hip joint? (3)

1. Ileofemoral
2. Pubofemoral
3. Ischiofemoral

18

What is the articular surface of the acetabulum like?

- smooth
- crescent shaped - lunate surface

19

What is the inferior deficiency of the acetabulum called?

Acetabular notch

20

What is the ace tabular notch bridged by?

transverse acetabular ligament

21

What is the acetabular labrum and what is it's role?

-a rim/lip of cartilage
- role - deepens the articular surface

22

What is the fibrous capsule like?


- strong and dense

23

What aspect of the fibrous capsule enables the hip joint to move around?

- the fact that it is loose and strong

24

What does the proximal attachment of the fibrous capsule encircle?

the rim of the acetabulum

25

Where is the distal attachment of the fibrous capsule?

- femoral neck
- intertrochanteric line
- greater trochanter

26

How does the iliofemoral ligament cover the hip joint?

superiorly and inferiorly

27

What is the strongest ligament of the hip joint?

illiofemoral ligamnet

28

What is the role of the illiofemoral ligament?

- prevents hyperextension of the hip during standing
- as it screws into the femoral head

29

How does the pubofemoral ligament cover the hip joint?

-inferiorly and anteriorly

30

What shape is the illiofemoral ligament?

Y shaped ligament

31

How does the pubofemoral ligament attach to the femur?

- attaches to the femur distally

32

How does the ischiofemoral ligament cover the hip joint?

posteriorly

33

What is the weakest ligament of the hip joint?

ischiofemoral ligament

34

How do the ligaments improve stability to the hip joint? ( 3 steps)

1. Spiral around the hip joint
2. Become taut when hip is extended
3. This pulls the femoral head into the acetabulum

35

What is the pelvic girdle?

strong ring of bone

36

What is the pelvic girdle formed by?

sacrum and 2 innominate bones

37

What is the the innominate bone formed by? (3)

1. illium
2. ischium
3. pubic bones

38

What is the point of fusion for the illiim, pubic and ischium?

acetabulum - the socket of the hip joint

39

What injuries can occur at the hip joint? (3)

1. fractured to the pelvic ring
2. dislocation of the hip joint
3. fracture to the neck of the femur (hip fracture)

40

What can the problems (congenital problems) children may have with the development of the hips lead to with the joints? (3)

lead to joint:

1. laxity
2. sublaxation
3. dislocation

of the hip

41

Where is the force likely to come from in a pubic rami fracture?

lateral force - significant trauma

likely to have other fractures - widening of the sacro-iliac joint

42

What is the cause of an open book pelvic fracture?

straight on force - motorbike accidents and mountain bike

43

What is a worry in an open book fracture?

internal damage to urethra and bladder

44

At what joint does a fracture of the neck of the femur usually occur at?

sacral-femur joint

45

When is posterior dislocation of the hip joint likely to occur at?

-car accident
-When some is in a sitting in a drivers seat position with knees bent = seated position

- hip is flexed, internally rotate and adducted

46

What nerve is at risk in posterior dislocation?

sciatic nerve

47

Will the patient be able to move their limb out of the posterior limb position?

no

48

How is posterior dislocation resolved?

- slotting the joint back into place
- using gas and air or sedation

49

What type of fracture can you get with posterior dislocation?

- acetabular fractures

50

When does anterior dislocation occur?

- when force is applied during extreme abduction with external rotation of hip

51

how is the femoral head positioned in anterior dislocation?

the femoral head is levered out

52

How does the limb appear in anterior dislocation? (3)

1. externally rotated
2. Abducted
3. Flexed

53

How common is anterior dislocation?

not very

54

Is the sciatic nerve at risk in anterior dislocation?

no

55

What is at risk in anterior dislocation?

- femoral artery, vein and nerve

56

What is used to help slot the anterior dislocation back into place and what does these means allow?

- sedation
- analgesia

allows the muscles to relax as they are contracted

57

What is medial dislocation also known as?

acetabular fracture

58

What is medial dislocation/acetabular fracture caused by?

fall from a height - force coming upwards

59

What other features are medial dislocation and acetabular fracture likely to have?

1. hypotension
2. tachycardia
3. internal injuries - puncture of uterus,bladder
4. shock
5. internal bleeding if puncture vessels

60

How may disruption the blood supply to the femoral head occur?

blood vessels may be torn or stretched

61

What may occur to some branches of the blood supply to the femoral if they are disrupted?

may remain kinked or compressed until the hip is reduced

62

What does lack of blood supply to the femoral head lead to?

avascular necrosis of femoral head

63

What does avascular necrosis of the femoral head lead to?

arthritis and maybe hip replacement

64

What does DDH stand for?

developmental dysplasia of the hip

65

When does DDH occur?

from birth - congenital problem

66

What are the severities of DDH?

1. sublaxation
2. Low dislocation
3. high dislocation

67

What happens in DDH?

- ligament has laxity - becomes too loose
- causes head of the femur to slide out of acetabulum

68

What problems for the child can DDH cause?

- trouble walking - walking with a limp

69

What happens if femoral head and acetabulum are not in contact earlier on in DDH?

the femoral head will not develop properly

70

What are the possible hip joint movements?

1. flexion/extension
2. adduction/ abduction
3. external/internal rotation

71

What forms the hip joint?

the acetabulum and femoral head