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Flashcards in The foot and ankle Deck (59)
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How is the ankle joint formed?

articulation between the distal tibia and fibula with the talus


What 2 movements does the synovial hinge joint allow?




What is the osteoology of the ankle?

1. tibia
2. fibula
3. medial malleolus - distal tibia
4. talus
5. lateral malleolus - distal fibula
6. calcaneus - heal bone
7. fibular trochlear
8. cuboid
9. groove
10. navicular
11. cuneiforms


What is the stability of the ankle joint like?

it is stable


What makes the ankle joint stable?

1. good congruity between malleolar mortice and trochlea - the malleoli grip the talus

2. involves strong ligaments


What ligaments make the ankle joint stable?

1. distal part - interosseous membrane
2. anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments


Where is the trochlea wider?

wider anteriorly than posteriorly


What is the movement of the trochlea during dorsiflexion and what does this movement do to the tibia and fibula?

the anterior part of the trochlea moves between the malleoli

spreads the tibia and fibula slightly increasing their grip on the talus


What is the most stable position of the ankle?



What are the lateral ligaments of the ankle joint that contribute to stability?

1. posterior talofibular ligament
2. anterior talofibular ligament
3. calcaneofibular ligament


What is the weakest ligament of the ankle joint?

Calcaneofibular ligament


What is the medial ligament attached to and where does it fan out to?

- attaches to the medial malleolus

- fans out to attach to talus, navicular and calcaneus


What is the medial ligament also called?

deltoid ligament due to it's resemblance to the greek letter delta


What are the movements of the ankle joint? (4)

1. dorsiflexion
2. plantarflexion
3. inversion
4. eversion


What muscles does dorsiflexion involve and what nerve and artery are these muscles supplied by?

muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg

deep fibular (perineal) nerve

anterior tibial artery


What muscles does plantar flexion involve and what nerve and artery are these muscles supplied by?

muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg - except popliteus

supplied by the tibial nerve

posterior tibial artery


Where does inversion and eversion usually occur?

- at subtler joint - with some movement in the transverse tarsal joint


Where does the subtler joint lie?

between the talus and underlying calcaneus


What type of injuries are most ankle sprains? (inversion or eversion?)

inversion injuries

with twisting of the plantar-flexed foot


What ligament is usually injured in an ankle sprain?

lateral ligament


How quickly do ligaments heal in ankle sprains and why?

they heal slowly

as ligaments are relatively avascular


What happens to the growth and strength of a ligament when it is detached from bone?

fibres don't grow back into the bone as extensively

healed ligament is usually weaker


What do torn ligaments predispose the ankle joint to and why?

They predispose the ankle joint to dislocation

As the ankle joint is less stable


Which ligament is weaker - the lateral or medial ligament and which part in particularly?

the lateral ligament

particularly the anterior talofibular part


What do you look for in a normal ankle joint x ray?

1. even joint space all the way


What can been seen on a x ray of a patient with osteoarthritis?

loss of joint space

loss of cartilage space

contour of talus is gone


What types of fractures can you have at the ankle joint?

1. fracture at distal fibula - lateral malleolar fracture
2. left ankle bimalleolar fracture
3. open fracture of lateral side of leg
4. fracture of fibula


What type of dislocation can you have at the ankle joint?

1. anterior dislocation of the distal talus of the tibia


What ligament can an eversion injury pull on and avulse and how can this fracture the fibula?

pull on strong medial ligament

causes avulsion of medial malleolus

fracture of fibula - lateral rotation of the talus


How common are eversion injuries?

not very common