Lower limb 2 - Posterior thigh and popliteal fossa Flashcards Preview

Anatomy term 2 > Lower limb 2 - Posterior thigh and popliteal fossa > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower limb 2 - Posterior thigh and popliteal fossa Deck (28):
1

What does the femur consist of?

robust shaft

2 complex expanded articular ends

2

What does the femur articulate with?

acetabulum and distally with the tibia

3

What is the proximal head of the femur like and what does it join to?

has a spherical head

joined to shaft of the femur by the neck

4

In what direction does the daft of the femur pass as it approaches the femur of the opposite thigh?

medially

5

What is the femoral shaft like generally and what is the exception?

generally - cylindrical and smooth

except for - linea aspera

6

What is the linea aspera and what does it form the attachment sites for?

a pair of ridges that run longitudinally along the dorsal surface

attachment site - for several muscles of the thigh

7

NOTE

make sure you know all the bony prominences on femur

8

What is the fascia lata?

a layer of deep fascia which surrounds the muscles of the thigh

9

What does the fascia lata form and what do they attach to and what 3 compartments do they divide the muscles of the thigh into?

1. forms - 3 inter muscular septa
2. 3 inter muscular septa attach to linea aspera
3. 3 compartments:

- anterior extensor
-posterior flexor
-medial adductor

10

What muscles make up the hamstring?

1. semimembranosus
2. semitendinosus
3. biceps femoris - long head

11

What do the 3 muscles of the hamstring share in common?

- the same proximal attachment
- and same innervation

12

What is the proximal attachment and innervation of the 3 muscles of the hamstring?

proximal attachment - ischial tuberosity

innervation - sciatic nerve

13

What are the distal insertions of the hamstrings?

biceps femoris - head of fibula

semitendinosus - media surface of the proximal tibia

semimembranosus - groove and adjacent bone on medial posterior surface of medial head of medial tibial condyle

14

Why is the short head of biceps femoris not considered as one of the hamstring muscles?

it doesn't share the common proximal attachment and innervation

15

What are the attachments and innervation of the short head of biceps femoris?

attachment - lateral lip of linea aspera

insertion - head of fibula

innervation - sciatic nerve

16

What is the function of the biceps femoris?

laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

flexes leg at knee joint

17

What is the function of semitendinosus?

medially rotates thigh at hip joint

flexes leg at knee joint

18

What is the function of semimembranosus?

extends thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh

flexes leg at knee joint

19

Which compartment is the adductor magnus in?

medial compartment

20

What can the adductor magnus be divided into?

1. hamstrings
2. adductor part

21

What is the nerve and proximal attachment of the adductor part of the adductor magnus?

1. obturator nerve
2. ischiopubic ramus

22

What is the nerve and proximal attachment of the hamstring part of the adductor magnus?

sciatic nerve

ischial tuberosity

23

Why is the hamstring part of the adductor magnus considered to be part of the hamstrings?

same origin/ proximal attachment of ischial tuberosity as the other hamstrings

24

What does the sciatic nerve divide into and where do they both enter?

common fibular/peroneal - laterally

tibial nerves - medially

popliteal fossa

25

What is the popliteal fossa?

a diamond shaped depression located on the posterior aspect of the knee.

26

What are the borders of the popliteal fossa?

superomedially - semitendinosus and semimembranosus

superolaterally - biceps femoris

inferomedially - medial head gastrocnemius

inferolaterally - lateral head of gastrocnemius

27

What forms the roof and floor of the popliteal fossa?

roof - popliteal fascia and skin

floor - posterior surface of knee joint capsule and femur

28

What do plantaris and gastrocnemius do?

flexor of knee

plantar flexor of ankle joint