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Flashcards in Med Term 15 Deck (190):
1

means the evaluation or appraisal of a condition.

assessment

2

the four key indications that the body systems are functioning. include temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure

vital signs

3

average normal reading is 98.6 F, or 37 C

temperature

4

an abnormally low body temperature

hypothermia

5

means heat

therm/o

6

an extremely high fever

hyperthermia

7

the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart

pulse

8

the number of complete respirations per minute

respiratory rate

9

the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries

blood pressure

10

device used to measure a blood pressure

sphygmomanometer

11

the top reading of a blood pressure

systolic

12

the bottom reading of a blood pressure

diastolic

13

considered to be the fifth vital sign

pain

14

means listening for sounds within the body and is usually performed through a stethoscope

auscultation

15

means to listen

auscult/o

16

means the process of

-tion

17

an abnormal rattle or crackle like respiratory sound heard during inspiration

rale, aka crackle

18

an abnormal sound heard while listening to the chest during inspiration, expiration, or both. low pitched, whistle like, or similar to snoring, caused by partial obstruction of the airway

rhonchus

19

an abnormal high-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation. the result of a partial blockage of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea

stridor

20

an abnormal sound heard during auscultation of an artery, usually due to partially blocked, narrowed, or diseased artery, or blood flowing through graft, fistula, or shunt

bruit

21

an abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves

heart murmur

22

normal noises made by the intestines

abdominal sounds, aka bowel sounds

23

an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts

palpation

24

a diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers

percussion

25

an instrument used to examine the interior of the eye

ophthalmoscope

26

means eye

ophthalm/o

27

an instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane

otoscope

28

an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior

speculum

29

an instrument used to listen to sounds within the body

stethoscope

30

describes any position in which the patient is lying down

recumbent

31

the patient is lying on the belly with the face down

prone position

32

the patient is lying on the back with the face up

horizontal recumbent position, aka supine position

33

the patient is lying on the back with the knees bent

dorsal recumbent position

34

the patient is lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back, used to examine the rectal area

Sim's position

35

the patient is lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and the chest rest on the table, used for rectal examinations

knee-chest position

36

position where the patient is lying on the back with the feet and legs raised and supported in stirrups, used for vaginal and rectal examinations and during childbirth

lithotomy position

37

when immediate results are requested

stat

38

means tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multichannel laboratory testing equipment

profile

39

an individual trained and skilled in phlebotomy

phlebotomist

40

the puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood

phlebotomy, aka venipuncutre

41

means vein

phleb/o

42

the technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test

capillary puncture

43

a series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions

complete blood cell count

44

a test based on the speed at which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container

erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aka sed rate

45

describes the percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red cells

hematocrit

46

means to separate

-crit

47

measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function

platelet count

48

a determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood

red blood cell count

49

usually part of a complete blood count

total hemoglobin test

50

means protein

-globin

51

a determination of the number of leukocytes in the blood

white blood cell count

52

determines what percentage of the total count is composed of each of the 5 types of leukocytes

white blood cell differential test

53

a group of eight specific blood tests that provide important information about the current status of the patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and calcium levels

basic metabolic panel

54

measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the wast product urea

blood urea nitrogen test

55

performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion

crossmatch tests

56

performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body, obtained by the presence of C-reactive protein, which is produced by the liver only during acute inflammation

C-reactive protein test (CRP)

57

measures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in a blood sample

lipid panel

58

a test used to diagnose conditions associated with abnormalities of clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy

prothrombin time

59

measures the ability of the liver's ability to take up, process, and secrete bilirubin into the bile

serum bilirubin test

60

measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

61

the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

urinalysis

62

describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance, average range is from 4.5 to 8.0 in urine

pH

63

reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present in urine

specific gravity

64

found in small quantities in normal urine and larger amounts in the urine of a diabetic, has a sweet, fruity odor

acetone

65

the presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is a sign of impaired kidney function

albuminuria

66

means albumin or protein

albumin/o

67

the presence of bacteria in the urine

bacteriuria

68

means bacteria

bacteri/o

69

the presence of calcium in the urine

calciuria

70

means calcium

calci/o

71

an increased concentration of creatine in the urine

creatinuria

72

means creatinine

creatin/o

73

a rapid method of identifying the presence in the body of one or more drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana

drug-screening

74

presence of glucose in the urine, and is most commonly caused by diabetes

glycosuria

75

means glucose

glycos/o

76

the presence of blood in the urine

hematuria

77

the presence of ketones in the urine

ketonuria

78

means ketones

keton/o

79

the presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine

proteinuria

80

the presence of pus in the urine

pyuria

81

laboratory tests that are used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and to determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment

urine culture and sensitivity tests

82

the visual examination of the interior of a body cavity

endoscopy

83

describes a surgical procedure performed through very small incision with the use of an endoscope and specialized instruments

endoscopic surgery

84

a small flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end, used to examine

endoscope

85

the visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope that is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall

laparoscopy

86

means abdomen

lapar/o

87

a surgical puncture to remove fluid for more diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid

centesis

88

the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid

abdominocentesis

89

a surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint

arthrocentesis

90

the puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy

cardiocentesis, aka cardiopuncture

91

the puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid

pericardiocentesis

92

the surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected middle ear

tympanocentesis

93

administered by swallowing, via an enema, or intravenously to make specific body structures visible

contrast medium

94

means that the substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film

radiopaque

95

means that the substance, such as air or nitrogen gas, does allow x-rays to pass through and appears black or dark gray on the resulting film

radiolucent

96

injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels and organs visible

intravenous contrast medium

97

a radiopaque contrast medium used primarily to visualize the gastrointestinal tract

barium

98

an image of hard-tissue internal structures is created by the exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation

radiology

99

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders with x-rays and other forms of radian energy

radiologist

100

describes the body placement and the part of the body closest to the x-ray film

radiographic positioning

101

describes the path that the x-ray beam follows through the body from entrance to exit

radiographic projection

102

has the patient positioned with the back parallel to the film

anteroposterior projection

103

has the patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it

posteroanterior projection

104

has the patient positioned at right angles to the film

lateral projection

105

has the patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film

oblique projection

106

means that the film is placed and exposed outside of the mouth

extraoral radiography

107

show all of the structures in both dental arches in a single film

panoramic radiograph, aka Panorex

108

means that the film is placed within the mouth and exposed by a camera positioned next to the exterior of the cheek

intraoral radiography

109

show the entire tooth and some surrounding tissue

periapical radiographs

110

show the crowns of the teeth in both arches on one side of the mouth, used primarily to detect dental decay between the teeth

bite-wing radiographs

111

uses a thin, fan-shaped x-ray beam that rotates around the patient to produce multiple cross-sectional views of the body

computed tomography

112

means to cut, section, or slice

tom/o

113

uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create signals that are sent to a computer and converted into images of any plane through the body

magnetic resonance imaging

114

combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body

magnetic resonance angiography

115

the visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen

fluoroscopy

116

means glowing

fluor/o

117

the recording of images as they appear in motion on a fluorescent screen

cineradiography

118

means relationship to movement

cine-

119

imaging of deep body structures by recording the echoes of pulses of sound waves that are above the range of human hearing

ultrasonography

120

means beyond

ultra-

121

means sound

son/o

122

the image created by ultrasonography

sonogram

123

an ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures and motion of the heart

echocardiography

124

performed in the same way as an echocardiogram, but measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart

doppler echocardiogram

125

a noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy

fetal ultrasound

126

an ultrasonic imaging technique used to evaluate heart structures

transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)

127

when radioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes

nuclear medicine

128

the radioactive substances used in nuclear medicine

radiopharmaceuticals

129

when nuclear medicine is used for diagnostic purposes

nuclear imaging

130

a diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear medicine technology to gather info about the structure and function of organs or body systems that cannot be seen on conventional x-rays

nuclear scan, aka scintigram

131

nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown

bone scan

132

a radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine in this test

thyroid scan

133

a type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing perfusion through tissues and organs

single photon emission computed tomography, aka SPECT

134

means the flow of blood through an organ

perfusion

135

combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas

positron emission tomography, aka PET imaging

136

the study of the nature, uses, and effects of drugs for medical purposes

pharmacology

137

means drug

pharmac/o

138

a licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications

pharmacist

139

a medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional such as a physician or dentist

prescription

140

a medication that can be purchased without a prescription

over-the-counter

141

drug usually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark

generic

142

drug sold under the name given the drug by the manufacturer. Always spelled with a capital leter

brand-name

143

a compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a drug, alcohol, or other substance. can also be a habit, or practice

addiction

144

an undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken

adverse drug reaction, aka side effect

145

the patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional

compliance

146

a factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised

contraindication

147

the result of drugs reacting with each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful

drug interaction

148

an unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual

idiosyncratic reaction

149

a substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it

palliative

150

the result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results

paradoxical reaction

151

an inactive substance, such as a sugar pill or liquid, that is administered only for its suggestive effects

placebo

152

a drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug, herbal remedy, or other treatment

potentiation

153

medication administered to prevent or reduce fever

antipyretic

154

refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness

analgesic

155

an analgesic that reduces pain and fever, but does not relieve inflammation. found in tylenol

acetaminophen

156

nonnarcotic analgesics administered to control pain by reducing inflammation and swelling

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aka NSAIDS

157

a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine that is sold over the counter under the brand names of Advil and Motrin, used for arthritis

Ibuprofen

158

traditionally administered to prevent seizures such as those associated with epilepsy

anticonvulsant

159

primarily administered to prevent or relieve depression

antidepressant

160

applied topically to relive pain due to conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

pain-relieving creams

161

a method of pain control by wearing a device that delivers small electrical impulses, as needed, to the nerve endings through the skin

transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, aka TENS

162

means across

trans-

163

describes vapors and gases taken in through the nose or mouth and absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs

inhalation administration

164

refers to medications taken by mouth to be absorbed through the walls of the stomach or small intestine

oral administration

165

the insertion of medication in the rectum either in the form of a suppository or a liquid

rectal administration

166

the placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly

sublingual administration

167

means tongue

lingu/o

168

a liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated

topical application

169

medication that is administered from a patch that is applied to unbroken skin

transdermal

170

means taken into the body, or administered, in a manner other than through the digestive tract

parenteral

171

made into the fatty layer just below the skin

subcutaneous injection

172

made into the middle layers of the skin

intradermal injection

173

made directly into the muscle tissue

intramuscular injection

174

made directly into a vein

intravenous injection

175

a single, concentrated dose of drug usually injected into a blood vessel over a short period of time

bolus

176

at

@

177

before meals

ac

178

as desired

ad lib

179

amount

amt

180

bid, b.i.d.

twice a day

181

nothing by mouth

NPO

182

after meals

p.c.

183

by mouth

p.o.

184

as needed

p.r.n.

185

every day

q.d.

186

every hour

q.h.

187

four times a day

q.i.d.

188

prescription

Rx

189

to be labeled accordingly

sig

190

three times a day

t.i.d.