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1

Used to describe the locations of the structural units of the body

Anatomic reference systems

2

Study of the structures of the body

Anatomy

3

Study of the functions of the structures of the body

Physiology

4

nature or physical

physi

5

the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position

anatomic position

6

imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes

Body planes

7

an up and down plane that is right angle to the horizon

vertical plane

8

the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves

midsagittal plane, or midline

9

a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

sagittal plane

10

a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

frontal plane, or coronal plane

11

a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon

horizontal plane

12

a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

transverse plane

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referes to the front, or belly side of the organ or body

ventral

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belly side of body

ventr

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referes to the back of the organ or body

dorsal

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back of the body

dors

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situated in the front, also, on the front or forward part of an organ

anterior

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front or before

anter

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pertaining to

-ior, -ic, -al, -ar, -eal, -tics, -ose

20

situated in the back, also, on the back part of an organ

posterior

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back or toward the back

poster

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uppermost, above, or toward the head

superior

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lowermost, below, or toward the feet

inferior

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toward the head

cephalic

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head

cephal

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toward the lower part of the body

caudal

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tail or lower part of the body

caud

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situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure

proximal

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situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

distal

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the direction toward, or nearer, the midline

medial

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the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline

lateral

32

relating to, or having, two sides

bilateral

33

spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs

body cavities

34

located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system

dorsal cavity

35

within dorsal cavity, within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain

cranial cavity

36

pertaining to the skull

cranial

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within dorsal cavity, within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord

spinal cavity

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cavity located along the front of the body, containing the body organs that maintain homeostasis

ventral cavity

39

the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment

homeostasis

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constant

home/o

41

control

-stasis

42

within the ventral cavity, surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs.

thoracic cavity, chest cavity, thorax

43

muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

diaphragm

44

within the ventral cavity, contains primarily the major organs of digestion

abdominal cavity, or abdomen

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within the ventral cavity, the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

pelvic cavity

46

refers to the abdominal and pelvic cavities as a single unit

abdominopelvic cavity

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means abdomen

abdomin/o

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means pelvis

pelv

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means relating to the groin, and the entire lower area of the abdomen

inguinal

50

the crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper end of the thigh

groin

51

descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into nine parts

regions of the thorax and abdomen

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regions located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs

hypochondriac regions

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cartilage

chondr/i

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region located above the stomach

epigastric region

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above

epi-

56

regions located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine, also, area of back between ribs and pelvis

lumbar regions

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lower back

lumb

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region surrounding the umbilicus

umbilical region

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belly button or navel

umbilicus

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regions on the left and right sides over the hip bones

iliac regions

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hip bone

ili

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region located below the stomach

hypogastric region

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divided into four

quadrant

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multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity

peritoneum

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thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ

membrane

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the outer layer or the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

parietal peritoneum

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cavity wall

parietal

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the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

visceral peritoneum

69

relating to the internal organs

visceral

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a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

mesentery

71

located behind the peritoneum

retroperitoneal

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behind

retro-

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peritoneum

periton

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inflammation of the peritoneum

peritonitis

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study of anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell

cytology

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the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment

cell membrane

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the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

cytoplasm

78

formative material of cells

-plasm

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a structure within the cell, surrounded by the nuclear membrane, that controls the activities of the cell and helps cell division

nucleus

80

unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

stem cells

81

undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ

adult stem cells, somatic stem cells

82

not having a specialized function or structure

undifferentiated

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having a specialized function or structure

differentiated

84

blood forming

hemopoietic

85

cell rejection between donor and recipient

graft versus host disease

86

undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell, but can form any adult cell

embryonic stem cells

87

where embryonic stem cells come from, found in umbilical cord and placenta

cord blood

88

a fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity, controlling heredity disorders and physical traits

gene

89

the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children

genetics

90

means producing

gene

91

a specialist in the field of genetics

geneticist

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gene that can be inherited from either parent to result in a specific genetic condition or characteristic

dominant gene

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gene that must be inherited from BOTH parents to result in a specific condition or trait

recessive gene

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the complete set of genetic information of an individual

genome

95

the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell, made up of DNA molecules containing the body's genes

chromosomes

96

any cell in the body except the gametes

somatic cell

97

pertaining to the body

somatic

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only type of cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes. Only has 23

sex cell, gamete

99

double helix structure containing thousands of genes providing information essential for heredity, physical appearance, disease risks, and other traits

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid

100

a shape twisted like a spiral staircase

helix

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two helixes twisted together

double helix

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a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule

genetic mutation

103

change within the cells of the body

somatic cell mutation

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change within the genes in a gamete that can be transmitted by a parent to it's children

gametic cell mutation

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the manipulating or splicing of genes for scientific or medical purposes

genetic engineering

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a pathological condition cased by an absent or defective gene (some obvious at birth, some evident over time)

genetic disorder

107

a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both respiratory and digestive systems

cystic fibrosis

108

a genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease

Down syndrome

109

a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing. Characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury

hemophilia

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a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. 50-50 chance. Nerve degeneration, uncontrolled movements and loss of some mental abilities

Huntington's disease

111

term used to describe a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles

Muscular dystrophy

112

a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing

Phenylketonuria

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a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain

Tay-Sachs disease

114

a group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions

tissue

115

the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues

histology

116

means tissue

hist

117

a specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels

histologist

118

these form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body, and glands

epithelial tissues

119

the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes

epithelium

120

outer layer of the skin

epidermis

121

specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

endothelium

122

these support and connect organs and other body tissues

connective tissues

123

connective tissue, such as bone and cartilage, that forms the joints and framework of the body

dense connective tissues

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connective tissue, aka fat, providing protective padding, insulation, and support

adipose tissue

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means fat

adip

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connective tissue that surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

loose connective tissue

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connective tissue which are blood and lymph, that transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body

liquid connective tissues

128

contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax

muscle tissue

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contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses

nerve tissue

130

the defective development, or congenital absense, of an organ or tissue

aplasia

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means without

a-

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means formation

-plasia

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the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells

hypoplasia

134

a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other. tumor formation

anaplasia

135

means excessive

ana-

136

abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs

dysplasia

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enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues

hyperplasia

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a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues

hypertrophy

139

means development

-trophy

140

a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions

gland

141

glands, such as sweat glands, that secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

exocrine glands

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glands which produce hormones and do not have ducts. Secreted directly into the blood stream, transported elsewhere

endocrine glands

143

the inflammation of a gland

adenitis

144

means gland

aden

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a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue

adenocarcinoma

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means cancerous

carcin

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means harmful, capable of spreading, and potentially life threatening

malignant

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a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue

adenoma

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means not life threatening

benign

150

the abnormal softening of a gland

adenomalacia

151

any disease condition of a gland

adenosis

152

the abnormal hardening of a gland

adenosclerosis

153

the surgical removal of a gland

andenectomy

154

a somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function

organ

155

the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function

pathology

156

disease, suffering, feeling, and emotion

path/o, -pathy

157

specialist in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis

pathologist

158

means after death

postmortem

159

postmortem examination

autopsy

160

the study of the causes of diseases

etiology

161

means cause

eti-

162

a disease producing microorganism such as a virus

pathogen

163

the spread of a disease

transmission

164

means that a pathogen is possibly present

contamination

165

any condition that is transmitted from one person to another, either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects

communicable disease, contagious disease

166

capable of being transmitted

communicable

167

situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface

indirect contact transmission

168

the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood

bloodborne transmission

169

occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze.

airborne transmission

170

caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present

food-borne and waterborne transmission

171

the spread of certain disease due to the bite or a vector

vector-borne transmission

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the specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group

epidemiologist

173

above

epi-

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population

dem

175

the ongoing presence of a disease within a population.

endemic

176

a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area

epidemic

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an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide

pandemic

178

means within

en-

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means entire

pan-

180

produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified

functional disorder

181

an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment

iatrogenic illness

182

an illness without known cause

idiopathic disorder

183

means peculiar to the individual

idi/o

184

means without known cause

idiopathic

185

an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses

infectious disease

186

a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting

nosocomial infection

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hospital acquired

nosocomial

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produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body

organic disorder

189

an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth

congenital disorder

190

existing at birth

congenital

191

can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or presence of an extra toe

developmental disorder, birth defect

192

a deviation from what is regarded as normal

anomaly

193

describes the congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular

atresia

194

congenital absence of the opening at the bottom end of the anus

anal atresia

195

the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does, or does not, receive before delivery

prenatal influences

196

birth defects often develop if a pregnant woman contracts this viral infection early in her pregnancy

rubella

197

caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy.

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)