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Flashcards in Med Term 9 Deck (161):
1

means constant

home/o

2

means control

-stasis

3

the major waste product of protein metabolism

urea

4

excreted from the body via the urinary bladder, converted from waste products and excess fluids

urine

5

consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and a urethra

urinary tract, aka urinary system

6

constantly filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water

kidneys

7

means pertaining to the kidneys

renal

8

means kidney

ren/o

9

the outer region of the kidney, contains nephrons

renal cortex

10

the inner region of the kidney, contains most tubules

medulla

11

a functional unit of the kidney, form urine by the process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

nephron

12

a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule, contained in each nephron

glomerulus

13

the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color

urochrome

14

means urine

ur/o

15

means color

-chrome

16

the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla, where newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureters

renal pelvis

17

two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

ureters

18

a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

urinary bladder

19

the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureters and urethra

trigone

20

the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body

urethra

21

the external opening of the urethra, aka urinary meatus

urethral meatus

22

approx. 1.5 inches long, and the urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina

female urethra

23

approx. 8 inches long and the urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis, transports both urine and semen

male urethra

24

surrounds the urethra and is part of the male reproductive system, disorders affect the ability to urinate

prostate gland

25

the expulsion of urine, requires coordinated contraction of the bladder muscles and the relaxation of the sphincters

urination

26

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys

nephrologist

27

means kidney

nephr/o

28

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

urologist

29

the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions

renal failure, aka kidney failure

30

a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood

uremia, aka uremic poisoning

31

means condition of the blood

-emia

32

has a sudden onset and is characterized by uremia.

acute renal failure (ARF)

33

the progressive loss of renal function, sometimes leading to uremia, which is caused by a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, DM, or hypertension

chronic renal failure

34

refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys. without dialysis or transplant, condition is fatal

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

35

a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death, can be from E. coli

hemolytic uremic syndrome

36

a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood

nephrotic syndrome

37

any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation

nephrosis

38

the absence of urine formation by the kidneys

anuria

39

excessive fluid in the body tissues

edema

40

the presence of abnormally high concentration of protein in the urine

hyperproteinuria

41

the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood

hypoproteinemia

42

means any disease of the kidney

nephropathy

43

the dilation of one or both kidneys, can be caused by backing up of urine

hydronephrosis

44

the distention of the pelvis of the kidney

nephrectasis

45

means enlargement or stretching

-ectasis

46

an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys

nephritis

47

a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine

glomerulonephritis, aka Bright's disease

48

means glomeruli

glomerul/o

49

the prolapse of a kidney

nephroptosis, aka floating kidney

50

suppuration of the kidney

nephropyosis, aka pyonephrosis

51

a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. reduced kidney function and leads to kidney failure

polycystic kidney disease

52

an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone

renal colic

53

a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children. high cure rate if treated promptly

Wilms tumor

54

an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body. vary in size, named for originating organ, formed by crystalized waste products of urine

stone, aka calculus

55

describes the presence of stones in the kidney

nephrolithiasis

56

means the presence of stones

-lithiasis

57

stone found in the kidney

nephrolith, aka renal calculus or kidney stone

58

means stone

-lith

59

a stone located anywhere along the ureter

ureterolith

60

means ureter

ureter/o, -ureter

61

a stone located within the urinary bladder

cystolith

62

means bladder

cyst/o

63

the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

hydroureter

64

means water

hydr/o

65

the distention of a ureter

ureterectasis

66

the discharge of blood from the ureter

ureterorrhagia

67

infection that usually begins in the bladder, but can affect all or part of the urinary system. frequent in women

urinary tract infection (UTI)

68

an inflammation of the urethra

urethritis

69

an inflammation of the bladder

cystitis

70

an inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelitis

71

an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney, usually caused by a bacterial infection spread up from the bladder

pyelonephritis

72

means pain in the urinary bladder

cystalgia, aka cystodynia

73

a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall

cystocele, aka fallen bladder

74

a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder, does not respond to traditional treatment

interstitial cystitis

75

an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone

trigonitis

76

means trigon

trigon/o

77

an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

vesicovaginal fistula

78

means bladder

vesic/o

79

means vagina

vagin/o

80

a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

neurogenic bladder

81

means created by

-genic

82

bleeding from the urethra

urethrorrhagia

83

means urethra

urethr/o

84

an abnormal discharge from the urethra

urethrorrhea

85

narrowing of the urethra

urethrostenosis

86

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening, upper surface of the male, clitoral region of the femal

epispadias

87

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening, under surface of the male, into the vagina of the female

hypospadias

88

a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis

paraspadias

89

an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50

benign prostatic hypertrophy

90

the condition of having symtoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy

prostatism

91

one of the most common cancers among men, can grow slowly with no symptoms or aggressively and spread throughout the body

prostate cancer

92

an inflammation of the prostate gland

prostatitis

93

means prostate gland

prostat/o

94

the increased output of urine

diuresis

95

means increasing the output of urine

diur/o

96

difficult or painful urination

dysuria

97

the involuntary discharge or urine

enuresis

98

means into

en-

99

urinary incontinence during sleep

nocturnal enuresis

100

excessive urination during the night

nocturia

101

means night

noct/o

102

means scanty urination

oliguria

103

means scanty

olig/o

104

means excessive urination

polyuria

105

means many

poly-

106

difficulty in starting a urinary stream

urinary hesitancy

107

mean the inability to control the excretion of urine and feces

incontinence

108

the inability to control the voiding of urine

urinary incontinence

109

the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

stress incontinence

110

occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active

overactive bladder, aka urge incontinence

111

the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

urinalysis

112

means a study of the parts

-analysis

113

the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination

bladder ultrasound

114

the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes, also to assist in removal of urine in those who can't themselves

catheterization

115

a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

cystography

116

the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

cystoscopy

117

a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters, using contrast medium

intravenous pyelogram

118

more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen

computed tomography (CT scan)

119

a radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without contrast medium

KUB

120

a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward through the urinary tract

retrograde urography

121

a diagnostic procedure in which a fluorscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra

voiding cystourethrography

122

performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer

digital rectal examination

123

used to screen for prostate cancer

prostate-specific antigen

124

medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

diuretics

125

a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

dialysis

126

means complete or through

dia-

127

means separation

-lysis

128

the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood

hemodialysis

129

where the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood, used in certain types of poisoning

peritoneal dialysis

130

the freeing of a kidney from adhesions

nephrolysis

131

the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

nephropexy

132

the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body

nephrostomy

133

the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

pyeloplasty

134

a surgical incision into the renal pelvis

pyelotomy

135

the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys

renal transplantation, aka kidney transplant

136

the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

137

means to crush a stone

lithotripsy

138

means to crush

-tripsy

139

the surgical removal of a nephrolith through an incision in the kidney

nephrolithotomy

140

performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone

percutaneous nephrolithotomy

141

the surgical removal of a ureter

ureterectomy

142

the surgical repair of a ureter

ureteroplasty

143

the surgical suturing of a ureter

ureterorrhaphy

144

the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

cystectomy

145

the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

cystopexy

146

the surgical suturing of the bladder

cystorrhaphy

147

a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder

lithotomy

148

performed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder

urethral catheterization

149

catheter that remains inside the body for a prolonged time

indwelling catheter

150

the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

suprapubic catheterization

151

a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

meatotomy

152

means meatus

meat/o

153

the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually to correct stress incontinence

urethropexy

154

the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

urethrostomy

155

a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

urethrotomy

156

describes the removal of a body part or destruction of its function, used to treat some types of prostate cancer

ablation

157

the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

prostatectomy

158

means prostate

prostat/o

159

the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope

transurethral prostatectomy (TURP)

160

a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women

Kegel exercises

161

a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals, to reestablish voluntary bladder control

bladder retraining