Med Term 13 Flashcards Preview

School > Med Term 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Med Term 13 Deck (144):
1

chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized function in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both

hormones

2

source: adrenal cortex, aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body.

Aldosterone (ALD)

3

Source: Adrenal cortex and gonads, Influence sex-related characteristics

Androgens

4

Source: pituitary gland, Stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

5

Source: secreted by the hypothalamus, then stored and released from the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

6

Source: Thyroid gland, works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

Calcitonin (CAL)

7

Source: adrenal cortex, regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. Also has an anti-inflammatory action

Cortisol

8

Source: Adrenal medulla, Stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

Epinephrine (Epi, EPI)

9

Source: ovaries, develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle

Estrogen (E)

10

Source: pituitary gland, in the female, stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova. In the male, stimulates the production of sperm

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

11

Source: pancreatic islets (alpha cells), increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream

Glucagon (GCG)

12

Source: pituitary gland, regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues

Growth hormone (GH)

13

Source: placenta, stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

14

Source: Pancreatic islets (beta cells), regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage

Insulin

15

Source: pituitary gland, stimulates ovulation in the female. Stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male

Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)

16

Source: pituitary gland, stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk

Lactogenic hormone (LTH)

17

Source: pituitary gland, in the female, stimulates ovulation. in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

18

Source: pituitary gland, increases the production of melanin in melanocytes of the skin

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

19

Source: pineal gland, influences the sleep-wakefulness cycles

Melatonin

20

Source: adrenal medulla, stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

Norepinephrine

21

Source: pituitary gland, stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. It also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth

Oxytocin (OXT)

22

Source: Parathyroid glands, works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

23

Source: ovaries, completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy

Progesterone

24

Source: testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone

25

Source: Thymus, plays an important role in the immune system

Thymosin

26

Source: thyroid gland, regulate the rate of metabolism

Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

27

Source: pituitary gland, stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

28

any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma

steroid

29

chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone, used illegally in athletes to increase strength and muscle mass

anabolic steroids

30

a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acts to control the balance of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as female reproduction, immune function, insulin...

Leptin

31

secreted by specialized cells of the brain, able to affect cells throughout the body

neurohormones

32

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands

endocrinologist

33

means to secrete within

endocrin/o

34

any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system

endocrinopathy

35

means within

endo-

36

means to secrete

crin/o

37

a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland

hypercrinism

38

a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland

hypocrinism

39

composed of anterior and posterior lobes, pea sized, hangs from the infundibulum below the hypothalamus, secretes hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands

pituitary gland

40

means swift

oxy-

41

means labor

-tocin

42

abnormal enlargement of the extremities that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

acromegaly

43

means extremities

acr/o

44

abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty

gigantism, aka giantism

45

pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

hyperpituitarism

46

means pituitary

pituitar/o

47

a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

hypopituitarism

48

any disorder of pituitary function

pituitarism

49

a slow-growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland. Functioning or nonfunctioning

pituitary adenoma, aka pituitary tumor

50

a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin. Females causes infertility and changes in menstruation. Males, impotence

prolactinoma, aka prolactin-producing adenoma

51

disease caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone. Causes excessive urination and excessive thirst

diabetes insipidus

52

a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development

human growth hormone, aka recombinant GH

53

a very small endocrine gland that is located in the central portion of the brain

pineal gland

54

a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin, can cause insomnia

pinealoma

55

means pineal gland

pineal/o

56

the surgical removal of the pineal gland

pinealectomy

57

lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage, butterfly-shaped

thyroid gland

58

an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, aka chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

59

disease caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion. Causes fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and slow metabolism

hypothyroidism, aka underactive thyroid

60

means thyroid

thyroid/o

61

a congenital form of hypothyroidism, causes arrested physical and mental development if treatment isn't started soon after birth

cretinism

62

caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion. causes swelling, particularly around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue, and subnormal temperature

myxedema, aka adult hypothyroidism

63

an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones. causes high metabolism, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss

hyperthyroidism, aka thyrotoxicosis

64

a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism. may cause fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue

thyroid storm

65

characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos, and is an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism

Graves' disease

66

an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland. produces a swelling in the front of the neck, usually occurs when the thyroid gland is not able to produce enough thyroid hormone

goiter, aka thyromegaly

67

means thyroid

thyr/o

68

an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

exophthalmos

69

a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. used to detect abnormal thyroid activity resulting from excessive pituitary stimulation

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

70

measures thyroid function, and is a form of nuclear medicine

thyroid scan

71

a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

antithyroid drug

72

the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells, used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders such as Graves' disease

chemical thyroidectomy, aka radioactive iodine therapy

73

the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland

lobectomy

74

administered to replace lost thyroid function

synthetic thyroid hormones

75

4 glands, embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, each of which is about the size of a grain of rice

parathyroid glands

76

the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone

hyperparathyroidism

77

means parathyroid

parathyroid/o

78

characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones, can lead to weakened bones or kidney stones

hypercalcemia

79

means calcium

calc/o

80

characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood

hypocalcemia

81

a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed, and may develop cysts. can be caused by overproduction of parathyroid hormone or by parathyroid cancer

osteitis fibrosa

82

caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone. causes hypocalcemia, and in severe cases, tetany

hypoparathyroidism

83

means parathyroid

parathyroid/o

84

the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands, is performed to control hyperparathyroidism

parathyroidectomy

85

gland located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity. posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart

thymus

86

an inflammation of the thymus gland

thymitis

87

means thymus

thym/o

88

the surgical removal of the thymus gland

thymectomy

89

a feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems

pancreas

90

those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions

pancreatic islets

91

the basic form of energy used by the body

glucose, aka blood sugar

92

the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose

glycogen

93

a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

insulinoma

94

means insulin

insulin/o

95

pain in the pancreas

pancreatalgia

96

means pancreas

pancreat/o

97

an inflammation of the pancreas, can be caused by long term alcohol abuse

pancreatitis

98

the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

pancreatectomy

99

an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood, seen primarily in diabetes mellitus

hyperglycemia

100

excessive thirst

polydipsia

101

means thirst

-dipsia

102

excessive hunger

polyphagia

103

excessive urination

polyuria

104

the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream, can cause hypoglycemia

hyperinsulinism

105

an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood, causes nervousness, shakiness, confusion, perspiration, anxiety, weakness

hypoglycemia

106

means sugar

glyc/o

107

a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

diabetes mellitus

108

an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells, causes polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue, slow healing. treated with diet and exercise as well as insulin injections

type 1 diabetes

109

an insulin resistance disorder where the body does not use insulin effectively. treated by diet, exercise, and oral medication

type 2 diabetes

110

a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies, can disappear after delivery or eventually develop into type 2 diabetes

gestational diabetes

111

measures the glucose levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours, to screen for diabetes and to monitor treatment

fasting blood sugar test

112

performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia

oral glucose tolerance test

113

measures the current blood sugar level, performed by the patient

home blood glucose monitoring

114

measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks. more rapid test than the HbA1c

fructosamine test

115

a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months

Hemoglobin A1c testing, aka HbA1c

116

caused by very low blood sugar

insulin shock

117

caused by very high blood sugar

diabetic coma

118

occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball, can cause loss of vision

diabetic retinopathy

119

primarily controls electrolyte levels within the body, located with one on top of each kidney

adrenal glands, aka suprarenals

120

mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood

electrolytes

121

the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

corticosteroids

122

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone. characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss

Addison's disease

123

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenalitis

124

means adrenal glands

adrenal/o

125

an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

aldosteronism

126

a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone

Conn's syndrome

127

a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine

pheochromocytoma

128

means dusky

phe/o

129

caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol. symptoms include a rounded or "moon face"

Cushing's syndrome

130

a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

131

the synthetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body, administered to suppress inflammation and as an immunosuppressant

cortisone

132

a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks

epinephrine

133

gamete-producing glands, ovaries in the females and testicles in males

gonads

134

a reproductive cells, sperm in males, ova in female

gamete

135

any hormone that stimulates the gonads

gonadotropin

136

means gonad

gonad/o

137

means to stimulate

-tropin

138

the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually, marked by maturing of the genital organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, and first menstruation in female

puberty

139

means having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male

virile

140

the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypergonadism

141

the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypogonadism

142

the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

gynecomastia

143

means female

gynec/o

144

means breast

mast/o