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31

Tx for ALS

Riluzole - reduces presynaptic release of glutamate

32

ALS

upper and lower motor neuron signs
affects both anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and upper motor neurons in the spinal cord - corticospinal tract

33

B12 neuropathy - subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord

associated with pernicious anemia
demyelination of axons in dorsal columns - loss of vibration and position sense, and spinocerebellar tracts - arm/leg ataxia

34

Demyelination of axons in the posterior limb of the internal capsule would cause

UMN signs
contralateral spastic paralysis secondary to disruption of the descending fibers of the corticospinal tract

35

What is affected in Charcot - Marie - Tooth Disease

neuronal loss in the anterior horn cells and posterior columns in the spinal cord
loss of conscious proprioception - posterior columns
LMN signs - ant. horn motor neurons

36

Neuronal loss in the region of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord
An acute inflammatory viral infection that affects the lower motor neuron and results in flaccid paralysis

Poliomyelitis

37

Supraoptic hypophyseal tract of hypothalamus controls:

ADH and oxytocin are synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and transported to the posterior pituitary via the suproaptic hypophyseal tract

ADH facilitates the retention of water and therefore the concentration of urine
Oxytocin stimulates the release of milk not it's synthesis

38

Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

connects the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary

39

milk synthesis is mediated by

prolactin

secreted by anterior pituitary

40

ovulation is stimulated by

LH

secreted by anterior pituitary

41

Salt retention is the primary function of

aldosterone

42

spermatogenesis is stimulated by

follicle-stimulating hormone

secreted by anterior pituitary gland

43

function and location of the chemoreceptor trigger zone

area postrema of the medulla, on the floor of the 4th ventricle, outside of the BBB
controls vomitting

44

Prochlorperazine

anti-psychotic, dopamine blocker at the chemoreceptor trigger zone
used for anti-emetic properties

45

Pituitary Gland Roles

TAN HATS
thirst
adenohypophysis
neurohypophysis
hunger
autonomic regulation
temperature regulation
sexual urges

46

Internal Carotid Artery supplies blood to what arteries

ACA and MCA

47

Where is the lesion in Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome

Mamillary bodies

48

Korsakoff psychosis is characterized by

anterograde amnesia and confabulation

49

Wernicke's Encephalopathy

confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia
assoc. with alcoholism
reversible with thiamine

50

kluver bucer syndrome

bilateral lesions to the amygdala
hyperorality, hypersexuality, and disinhibition

51

meningioma

often located in convexities of cerebral hemispheres

Psammoma bodies - laminated mineral deposits formed via calcification of whorled clusters

PSaMMoma
Papillary - thyroid
Serous - ovary
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

52

oligodendrogliomas

cerebral hemispheres in middle aged people
fried egg cells

53

Internuclear opthalmoplegia

indicative of MS
lesion of medial longitudinal fasciculus - movement started by CN VI and cannot be transmitted to III - diplopia and nystagmus

54

Arcuate fasciculus connects what two areas

Broca's and Wernicke's of left hemisphere

Manifests as impaired repetition

55

Medial Lemniscus carries what information

sensory information on light touch, conscious proprioception, and vibration in the extremities from the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus to the thalamus

56

role of the internal segment of the globus pallidus in Parkinson's Disease

excessive inhibition of the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus making it difficult for patients to initiate movements
normally, dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra induce striatal neurons to inhibit the globus pallidus, thereby lifting the inhibition of the thalamus

57

bells palsy affects which nerve

VII
afferent taste from ant 2/3 of ipsilateral tongue
touch and pain sensory fibers from ipsilateral ear
motor fibers to muscles of facial expression, ipsilateral paralysis
ipsilateral stapedius
dryness in ipsilateral eye and mouth - facial nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to ipsilateral lacrimal and submandibular/sublingual glands
+ facial muscle weakness prevents eyelids from closing - exacerbating eye dryness

58

physostagmine vs neostigmine MOA

both are reversible anticholinesterases
Physostagmine - crosses BBB, better CNS penetration, used as antidote for anticholinergic toxicity
Neostigmine - does not cross BBB, better peripheral action especially on skeletal muscle, used to treat Myasthenia Gravis

59

PICA supplies blood to

dorsolateral quadrant of the medulla, including the nucleus ambiguous and the inferior surface of the cerebellum - holds V (face and pain), vestibular nuclei, nucleus ambiguous (palate problems and hoarse voice), spinothalamic tract (contra pain and temp), descending sympathetic fibers (Horners Syndrome)

60

Lateral Medullary Syndrome - Wallenberg Syndrome

PICA stroke