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Flashcards in neuro Deck (99)
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61

cochlea and vestibular nuclei supplied by what artery

labyrinthine artery

62

internal capsule, caudate, putamen and globus pallidus are perfused by

lateral striate arteries of MCA

assoc. with lacunar infarcts

63

Guillan Barre is most common caused by an infection by

campylobacter jejuni

64

Guillan Barre is best treated by

plasmapherisis followed by immunoglobulins and supportive care

65

Acute injury to CNS (cauda equina syndrome, metastatic bone disease, or spinal cord injury) is best treated by

glucocorticoids

66

Donepezil is used for

initial tx of Alzheimer's
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor - increases ACh in presynaptic space

67

Selegilin

MAO B inhibitor
increases dopamine, used in parkinson's

68

Diazapam

increases frequency of GABA channel opening
Tx for anxiety, status epilepticus, and alcohol withdrawal
Benzodiazapine

69

Bromocriptine

dopamine receptor agonist, used in Parkinson's

70

Desmopressin

ADH analog
Taken nasally to treat central diabetes insipidus

71

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Failure of kidneys to concentrate urine due to lack of ADH secretion from the posterior pituitary - without ADH distal tubules remain impermeable to water
caused by head trauma, hypothalamic and pituitary tumors
characterized by low urine specific gravity and high serum osmolality

72

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Principal cells of the kidneys do not respond to ADH because of defective ADH receptors
caused by lithium toxicity and hypercalcemia
characterized by low urine specific gravity and high serum osmolality

73

Hydrochlorothiazide

diuretic used to treat nephrogenic DI
ADH is futile if receptors are defective

74

JC virus in AIDS patients is associated with which disease

Progressive multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
multiple areas of demyelination in the CNS white matter
reactivation of dormant virus
initial findings- speech, memory, coordination, vision deficits
rapid

75

Common fungal cause of meningitis in AIDS pts

Cryptococcus neoformans

76

Where would a HSV 1 encephalitic lesion most likely present in an AIDS pt

Temporal Lobe

77

Pneumocystis jiroveci

common cause of pneumonia in HIV pts whose CD4+ cell counts are less than 200
xray would show ground glass appearance

78

Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of encephalitis in pts with

HIV
CD4+ count less than 100
seizures and headache
ring enhancing lesions with surrounding edema

79

A disease described by dementia, increased impulsivity and hyperoral habits (frontotemporal dementia),
confirmed by intracytoplasmic, silver-staining spherical tangles and occasional balloon neurons

Pick Disease

80

What is affected by a midshaft humerus fracture

The radial groove
Radial nerve and brachial artery
inability to extend the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints of all digits

81

What causes a winged scapula

Long thoracic nerve damage - innervated Serratus Anterior
injury to the axilla or lateral thoracic wall

82

What type of injury can cause damage to the axillary nerve

Surgical neck of the humerus fracture or anterior shoulder dislocation
Axillary nerve innervates deltoid - abduction

83

Weakness in adduction and abduction of the fingers can be caused

Damage to the ulnar nerve at the medial epicondyle

84

Supracondylar humerus fracture causes damage to what nerve

Median

85

What nerve roots are compressed in Erb Palsy

C5 and C6
Axillary nerve

86

cluster headaches

Always unilateral
repetitive headaches that occur for weeks to months at a time with intervening periods of remission
typically around the eye or temple and are excruciating
not preceded by prodromal symptoms

87

migraine headaches

preceded by prodromal symptoms
can be bilateral
increase in severity and can last 10-12 hours

88

A headache that frequently presents with unilateral ear or auricular pain radiating to the jaw is caused by

temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome

89

The most common headache syndrome that typically presents with bifrontal squeezing and constant pain

tension headaches
typically relieved by NSAIDs

90

Naloxon reverses the effects of

opioid intoxication
opioid receptor antagonist
opioid intoxication can present with miosis due to increased parasympathetic tone