PART 2. THEORY & RESEARCH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PART 2. THEORY & RESEARCH Deck (87)
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1

Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data.

Theory

2

Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research.

Hypotheses

3

2 Basic Issues

Active or Reactive
Continuous or Discontinuous

4

Who proposed the mechanistic model?

John Locke

5

Who proposed the organismic model?

Jean Jacques Rousseau

6

This model believes that people are like machines that react to the environment. It believes development is continuous and changes are quantitative.

Mechanistic Model

7

This model believes that people are active, growing organisms that set their own development in action. It believes development is discontinuous and changes are qualitative.

Organismic Model

8

5 MAJOR PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Psychoanalytic
Learning
Cognitive
Contextual
Evolutionary/Sociobiological

9

This perspective focuses on the unconscious emotions and drives.

Pychoanalytic

10

This views development in the light of observable behaviors.

Learning

11

It is a human developmental view that emphasizes the thought process.

Cognitive

12

It views development through the historical, social, and context lens.

Contextual

13

Proposed by E.D. Wilson. This perspective believes that human development occurs because of the evolutionary and biological underpinnings of behavior.

Evolutionary/Sociobiological

14

3 Parts of Personality according to Freud

Id
Ego
Superego

15

Acts according to the pleasure principle

Id

16

The mediator of Id and Superego. It is responsible for finding realistic ways that satisfies the Id that are acceptable to the Superego.

Ego

17

Stages in Freud's Psychosexual Development

Oral stage (birth; 0-1 yrs)
Anal Stage (1-3 yrs)
Phallic Stage (3-5 yrs)
Latency Stage (5 yrs to puberty)
Genital Stage (from puberty on)

18

Occurs when a kid, while growing up, received too much or too little of something in a certain stage.

fixation

19

This stands up to moral standards and aims to please others.

Superego

20

Stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Development

Trust VS Mistrust (0 to 1 1/2 yrs) = Hope
Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt (1 1/2 to 3 yrs) = Will
Initiative VS Guilt (3 to 5 yrs) = Purpose
Industry VS Inferiority (5 to 12 yrs) = Competence
Identity VS Role Confusion (12 to 18 yrs) = Fidelity
Intimacy VS Isolation (18 to 40 yrs) = Love
Generativity VS Stagnation (40 to 65 yrs) = Care
Ego Integrity VS Despair (65 and above yrs) = Wisdom

21

This theory of human development believe personality is influenced by society and develops through a series of stages with positive and negative tendencies. Positives must dominate but some degree of negative is needed to achieve optimal development.

Erikson's Psychosocial Development
[Active]

22

major psychosocial challenge that is particularly important at that time and will remain an issue to some degree throughout life.

crisis in personality

23

Theory that states behavior is controlled by powerful unconscious urges (libido).

Freud's Psychosexual Development
[Reactive]

24

Theories that says people are responders to the environment.

Behaviorism
[Reactive]

25

In this theory, children learn in a social context by observing and imitating others.

Bandura's Social learning theory
[Active and Reactive]

26

This theory believes that changes are qualitative and occurs between infancy and adolescence.

Piaget's cognitive-stage theory
[Active]

27

A theory that emphasizes social interaction as the central ingredient of cognitive development.

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
[Active]

28

It notes that human beings are processors of symbol.

Information-processing theory
[Active]

29

In this theory, the developing person and 5 contextual influences interact.

Bronfrenbrenner's bioecological theory
[Active]

30

These theories says that human beings are the product of adaptive processes.

Evolutionary psychology
Bowlby's attachment theory
[Active and Reactive - theorists vary]