Participles Flashcards Preview

2nd Moreland and Fleischer > Participles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Participles Deck (20):
1

What must a participle do

Agree with the noun it qualifies in gender, number, case
Has tense and voice

Retains its verbal powers and can take an object
"The men DESTROYING THE TOWN"

2

Present active

Present stem + ns

ie will appear for i-stems

3

Perfect passive

Fourth principal part (-us -a -um)

4

Future active

4th principal part -urus -ura -urum

5

Future passive

Present stem + -ndus -nda -ndum

ie will appear for i-stem verbs

6

The tenses of participles

Its tense is relative to that of the main verb

Present: an event contemporaneous to main verb
Past: an event prior to main verb
Future: an event subsequent to main verb

7

How should a present participle be translated

Femina clamans discessit

The SHOUTING woman departed
The woman departed SHOUTING
SHOUTING, the woman departed
The woman WHO WAS SHOUTING departed
The woman, SINCE SHE WAS SHOUTING, departed
The woman, ALTHOUGH SHE WAS SHOUTING, departed
WHEN/WHILE SHE WAS SHOUTING, the woman departed
IF SHE WAS SHOUTING, the woman departed

8

What words can a participle be translated with

If, When, while, since, although

9

When a verb is to be taken as concessive

Concessive = "although"
"Tamen"(nevertheless) is inserted to qualify the main verb

10

Femina clamans tamen discessit

Although the woman was shouting, she nevertheless departed

11

How should a perfect participle be translated

Femina territa clamavit

The HAVING-BEEN-FRIGHTENED woman shouted.
The woman HAVING BEEN FRIGHTENED, shouted
HAVING BEEN FRIGHTENED, the woman shouted
The FRIGHTENED woman shouted
The woman WHO HAD BEEN FRIGHTENED shouted
SINCE/ALTHOUGH/WHEN/AFTER/IF SHE HAD BEEN FRIGHTENED, the woman shouted

12

How to make a past participle active (not passive)

After she shouted, the woman departed

Use "postquam" introducing a subordinate clause

Postquam clamavit, femina discessit

13

How should a future active participle be translated

Femina discessura virum vidit

The ABOUT-TO-DEPART woman saw her husband
the woman, ABOUT TO DEPART, saw her husband
ABOUT TO DEPART, the woman saw her husband
The woman WHO WAS ABOUT/GOING TO DEPART saw her husband
SINCE/ALTHOUGH/WHEN/AS/IF the woman WAS GOING TO DEPART, she saw her husband

14

How should a future passive participle be translated

Libros legendos in mensa posuit

He placed HAVING-TO-BE-READ books on the table
He placed books TO BE READ on the table
He placed books WHICH HAD TO BE READ on the table

15

What is the future passive participle

The gerundive
Notion of obligation, necessity, propriety

16

What is a participle

A verbal adjective
A verb made adjective

The SHOUTING woman
The DESTROYED town

17

How are present participles declined

like third declension adjectives of one termination

18

Singular Present participle

M/F: ns, ntem, ntis, nti, nti(-e)
N: ns, ns, ntis, nti, nti(-e)

19

Plural present participle

M/F: ntes, ntes(-is), ntium, ntibus, ntibus
N: ntia, ntia, ntium, ntibus, ntibus

20

Present participle difference between -i and -e endings

-i: when used as an attributive adjective
-e: when used as a noun