Result Clauses Flashcards Preview

2nd Moreland and Fleischer > Result Clauses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Result Clauses Deck (20):

How are they formed, positive

Adjective/adverb of degree + ut + subjunctive


How are they formed, negative

Adjective/adverb of degree + ut...non + subjunctive

"Ut...non" not "ne" like in purpose closes


How are they translated



Adjectives of degree

Tantus -a -um = 'so great'
Talis -e = 'such, of such sort'
Tot = 'so many'


Adverb of degree

Ita = 'so'
Tam = 'so'
Sic = 'so, in this way'
Adeo = 'so'


Tenses of the subjunctive

Sequence of tenses

But if the perfect subjunctive is used in secondary sequence (not imperfect) then it is translated as "actually"
He actually said this"


Venit ut turbam vinceret

Purpose clause

He came in order that he might overcome the crowd


Tam fortis erat ut a turba non vinceretur

Result clause

He was so brave that he was not overcome by the crowd


Verbs and expressions that have result clauses as their object or subject (substantive clauses of result)

Object clause:
Efficere ut = to bring it about that
Facere ut = to see to it that
Subject clause:
Accidit ut = it happens that
Fit ut = it comes about that, it happens that
Fieri ut = it is able to happen that, it it possible that


Substantive clauses of result differences from normal clauses of result

The verbs efficere and facere frequently have "ne" for the negative and not "ut...non"


Relative clauses of characteristic

Relative pronoun qui, quae, quod + subjunctive


How is a Relative clauses of characteristic translated

The kind of
Of the kind


Is est qui celeriter ambulet

He is the kind of man who walks fast
He is a man who walks fast

If it was indicative: he is the (actual) man who walks fast

Relative clauses of characteristic


Sunt qui ei credant
Hi sunt qui ei credunt

They are the kind of men who trust him
There are men of the kind who trust him
There are those who trust him

Indicative: these are the (actual) ones who trust him


Quis erat qui hoc crederet?

Who was there (of the kind) who believed this?


Sunt qui
Est qui
Nemo est qui
Nihil est quod
Quis est qui?
Quis est quod?

There are those who
He is one who
there is no one who
There is nothing that
Who is there who?
What is there that?

(Kind of) can be added for emphasis


Solus est qui
Is est qui
Cicero est qui
Dignus est qui

He is the only (kind of) man who
He is the (kind of) man who
Cicero is the (kind of) man who
He is the (kind of) man worthy (to)


Qui non can be replaced by

The indeclinable quin


Relative clauses of result

The ut is replaced by qui, quae, quod

The translation is the same


What are they like

Purpose clauses but with a prior adjective/adverb of degree in the main clause