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Flashcards in Pathoma: Principles of Neoplasia Deck (69)
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31

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
ERBB2 (HER2/neu)

Epidermal growth factor receptor
amplification
subset of breast carcinomas

32

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
RET

neural growth factor receptor
point mutation
MEN2A, MEN 2B and sporadic medullary carcinoma of thyroid

33

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
KIT

stem cell growth factor receptor
point mutation
gastrointestinal stromal tumor

34

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
RAS gene family

GTP-binding protein
point mutation
carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma

35

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
ABL

tyrosine kinase
t(9:22) with BCR
CML and some types of ALL

36

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
c-Myc

transcription factor
t(8:14) involving IgH
burkitt lymphoma

37

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
N-Myc

transcription factor
amplification
neuroblastoma

38

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
L-myc

transcription factor
amplification
lung carcinoma (small cell)

39

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
CCND1 (cyclin D1)

cyclin
t(11:14) involving IgH
mantle cell lymphoma

40

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
CDK 4

cyclin dependent kinase
amplification
melanoma

41

p53

tumor suppressor

regulates progression of the cell cycle from G1 to S phase
slows cell cycle when damage is present
if repair is not possible, upregulates BAX -> disrupts Bcl2 -> induces apoptosis

42

Knudson two hit hypothesis

both copies of p53 gene must be knocked out for tumor formation

43

Rb

tumor suppressor

hold E2F transcription factor which is necessary for transition to S phase from G1

44

sporadic Rb mutation

both hits are somatic
characterized by unilateral retinoblastoma

45

germline Rb mutation

familial retinoblastoma - 2nd hit is somatic
bilateral retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

46

Bcl2

prevents apoptosis in normal cells
stabilizes mitochondrial membrane, blocking release of cytochrome c
over expressed in follicular lymphoma

47

telomerase is necessary for

cell immortality
cancers often have upregulated telomerase, which preserves telomeres

48

angiogenesis

necessary for tumor survival and growth
FGF and VEGF often produced by tumor cells

49

how do tumor cells evade immune surveillance

downregulating expression of MHC I

normally, the abnormal proteins would be displayed by MHC I and destroyed by CD8+

50

lymphatic spread is characteristic of

carcinomas

51

hematogenous spread is characteristic of

sarcomas and some carcinomas

52

seeding of body cavities is characteristic of

ovarian carcinoma
which often involves the peritoneum

53

Benign tumors histologic features

organized growth
uniform nuclei
low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
minmal mitotic activity
lack of invasion
no met potential

54

malignant tumor histology

disorganized growth
nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia
high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio
high mitotic activity with atypical mitosis
invasion

55

well differentiated

low grade
resembles normal parent tissue

56

poorly differentiated

high grade
does not resemble parent tissue

57

grading

determines prognosis

58

staging

more important than grade
assessment of size and spread of cancer

59

TNM staging of a tumor

T - tumor - size and/or depth of invasion
N - spread to regional lymph nodes, 2nd most important prognostic factor
M - metastasis - single most important prognostic factor

60

Immunohistochemical stain assoc. with which tissue:
keratin

epithelium