What are agents of opportunity?
Toxic industrial chemicals, poisoning consumer products
What some types of chemical weapons?
Nerve agents, blood agents, irritants agents, vessicants, incapacitating agents
What are the nerve agents?
Organophophates chemicals (similar to insecticides and high lethal) Liquids that are vaporized to disseminate (toxin if inhaled, slow onset)
What are the muscarinic effects of an organophosphate poisoning?
Defecation Urination Miosis Bronchorrhea, bronchospasm Emesis Lacrimation Secretions/seizures
What are the nicotinic effects of an organophosphate poisoning?
Mydiasis Tachycardia Weakness Hypertension Fasciculation Seizures
What are the characteristics of low nerve agent exposure?
Miosis, dim vision, eye pain, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, sweating
What are the characteristics of high nerve agent exposure?
Immediate loss of consciousness, seizures, apnea, paralysis
What are the treatments for nerve agents?
Antidodes: atropine (2mg IV), pralidoxine (1 g IV), benzodiazepines for seizures
How much atropine is given?
Starting dose 2 mg, give until secretions are dry, ventilation is easy, if pt is conscious or comfortable
What are the characteristics of irritant gasses?
Common industrial chemical, combine with moisture to form acids or bases, high doses can cause chemical burns
What are the locations of gas site of injury?
Nose - ammonia
Mouth - chlorine
Lung - phosgene