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Flashcards in Prepping communities: Nuclear Deck (32):
1

What are the characteristics of dirty bombs?

Low level radiation dispersal and contamination, acute radiation with unlikely causalities, clean up and decontamination main issues

2

What are the three critical group event that must be ID'ed and completed from a dirty bomb?

Casualty and pt triage, medical decontamination, personal protective equipment

3

What is the energy partition of a standard fission/fusion bomb?

50% blast, 35% thermal, 10% fallout, 5% initial radiation

4

What is a fallout?

A complex mixture of over 200 different isotopes of 36 elements
2 oz fission produced for each kT yield

5

Describe early fallout.

Reaches the ground during the first 24 hours after detonation
50-70% of totally radioactivity
Highest degree of risk

6

Describe delayed fallout.

Arrives after 1st day, fine/invisible particles that settle in low concentrations, 40% of total radioactivity, much lower degree of risk than early fallout

7

What is ionizing radiation?

Any radiation consisting of directly to indirectly ionizing particles or photons

8

Which is the strongest type of ionizing radiation?

Gamma and Neutron

9

What are the keys to limiting expsoure?

Time, distance, shielding

10

What are the radiation exposure types?

Irradiation, external contamination, internal contamination

11

How is radiological activity detected?

Survey meters: geiger counters, detect and measure presence
Dosimeters: measure personal radiation exposure

12

How quickly does chemical damage occur?

Free radials in a fraction of a second

13

How quickly does cellular damage occur?

Proteins, membranes, DNA
Seconds to hours

14

How quickly does organ damage occur?

Tissue damage and loss of organ function
Hours to years

15

What is prodromal syndrome?

(.5 Gy, 50 rads)
Effects of rapidly dividing cells, bone marrow suppression, GI effects

16

What is the primary treatment for radiation?

Treat life threatening trauma first, remove clothing and decontaminate, treat rad effects, surgery if needed

17

What are some decon agents?

Dry removal, soap/shampoo and water, iodine, toothpaste

18

What is the treatment for plutominum/transuranics?

DTPA

19

What is the treatment for cesium?

Insoluble prussian blue

20

What is the treatment for uranium?

Alkakinization of urine

21

What is the treatment for tritium?

Radiostable water

22

What is the treatment for radiostrontium?

Sodium alginate

23

What are the causes of burn deaths?

Direction from accident, infection, organ system failure, iatrogenic intervention

24

How are infections controlled in burn care?

Use of antimicrobials, support of immune mechanisms, aggressive infection control

25

What are the main facets of burn therapy?

Pain meds, mafenide or silver sulfadiazine, debridement, covering old skin, microencapsulated antibiotics

26

What is done during detection in a radioactive event?

The determination that there is a radioactive component to a disaster scene must use specific equipment which isn't always available

27

What does incident command do during a radiation event?

Radiation safety officer to command structure, withdraw personnel until full assessment can be made

28

What are the main facets in security and safety in a radiation event?

Time, distance, shielding

29

How should assess hazards focus on in a radioactive event?

Don't just focus on hidden aspect, be aware of all hazards associated

30

What support should be had in a radiation event?

May quickly overwhelm a community's medical resources, coordination w/ trauma and burn centers in essential

31

What should be done in evac for radiation events?

Pt decontamination is essential, similar to disaster victims

32

What is expected in the recovery phase of a radiation event?

Complicating aspects with high levels of radiation left over that have very long half lives