Prepping communities: Nuclear Flashcards Preview

PCBM M1T3 > Prepping communities: Nuclear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prepping communities: Nuclear Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What are the characteristics of dirty bombs?

A

Low level radiation dispersal and contamination, acute radiation with unlikely causalities, clean up and decontamination main issues

2
Q

What are the three critical group event that must be ID’ed and completed from a dirty bomb?

A

Casualty and pt triage, medical decontamination, personal protective equipment

3
Q

What is the energy partition of a standard fission/fusion bomb?

A

50% blast, 35% thermal, 10% fallout, 5% initial radiation

4
Q

What is a fallout?

A

A complex mixture of over 200 different isotopes of 36 elements
2 oz fission produced for each kT yield

5
Q

Describe early fallout.

A

Reaches the ground during the first 24 hours after detonation
50-70% of totally radioactivity
Highest degree of risk

6
Q

Describe delayed fallout.

A

Arrives after 1st day, fine/invisible particles that settle in low concentrations, 40% of total radioactivity, much lower degree of risk than early fallout

7
Q

What is ionizing radiation?

A

Any radiation consisting of directly to indirectly ionizing particles or photons

8
Q

Which is the strongest type of ionizing radiation?

A

Gamma and Neutron

9
Q

What are the keys to limiting expsoure?

A

Time, distance, shielding

10
Q

What are the radiation exposure types?

A

Irradiation, external contamination, internal contamination

11
Q

How is radiological activity detected?

A

Survey meters: geiger counters, detect and measure presence

Dosimeters: measure personal radiation exposure

12
Q

How quickly does chemical damage occur?

A

Free radials in a fraction of a second

13
Q

How quickly does cellular damage occur?

A

Proteins, membranes, DNA

Seconds to hours

14
Q

How quickly does organ damage occur?

A

Tissue damage and loss of organ function

Hours to years

15
Q

What is prodromal syndrome?

A

(.5 Gy, 50 rads)

Effects of rapidly dividing cells, bone marrow suppression, GI effects

16
Q

What is the primary treatment for radiation?

A

Treat life threatening trauma first, remove clothing and decontaminate, treat rad effects, surgery if needed

17
Q

What are some decon agents?

A

Dry removal, soap/shampoo and water, iodine, toothpaste

18
Q

What is the treatment for plutominum/transuranics?

A

DTPA

19
Q

What is the treatment for cesium?

A

Insoluble prussian blue

20
Q

What is the treatment for uranium?

A

Alkakinization of urine

21
Q

What is the treatment for tritium?

A

Radiostable water

22
Q

What is the treatment for radiostrontium?

A

Sodium alginate

23
Q

What are the causes of burn deaths?

A

Direction from accident, infection, organ system failure, iatrogenic intervention

24
Q

How are infections controlled in burn care?

A

Use of antimicrobials, support of immune mechanisms, aggressive infection control

25
Q

What are the main facets of burn therapy?

A

Pain meds, mafenide or silver sulfadiazine, debridement, covering old skin, microencapsulated antibiotics

26
Q

What is done during detection in a radioactive event?

A

The determination that there is a radioactive component to a disaster scene must use specific equipment which isn’t always available

27
Q

What does incident command do during a radiation event?

A

Radiation safety officer to command structure, withdraw personnel until full assessment can be made

28
Q

What are the main facets in security and safety in a radiation event?

A

Time, distance, shielding

29
Q

How should assess hazards focus on in a radioactive event?

A

Don’t just focus on hidden aspect, be aware of all hazards associated

30
Q

What support should be had in a radiation event?

A

May quickly overwhelm a community’s medical resources, coordination w/ trauma and burn centers in essential

31
Q

What should be done in evac for radiation events?

A

Pt decontamination is essential, similar to disaster victims

32
Q

What is expected in the recovery phase of a radiation event?

A

Complicating aspects with high levels of radiation left over that have very long half lives