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Flashcards in Prepping communities: Explosives Deck (31)
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What are some newer explosive devices?

Enhanced blast weapons, improvised explosive devices


What is an explosive event?

Conversion of a solid or liquid explosive material into gas causing energy release


What is the degree of blast injury based on?

Size of charge, distance, surrounding environment


What occurs when a blast is reflected by a solid surface?

Magnified many times


What should be done in detection during an explosive event?

Not typical or predictable
Used mostly by terrorists


What does the incident commander do when there is an explosive event?

Should manage traumatic and explosive events like any other disaster


What should be done in security and safety in an explosive event?

Scene must be secured and perimeter established, safety hazards must be relayed to incident commander


What types of hazards should be assessed?

Downed power lines, fire, debris, blood, structural instability


Who must be communicated with is the support part of an explosive event?

The trauma and burn team/center


What types of injuries can you see from a blast?

Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary


What are the characteristics to a primary blast injury?

Unique to explosions with high explosives, causes damage to air filled organs
Blast lung, TM rupture in ear, abd injury, brain injury


What will a pressure differential show in a primary blast injury?

Tear is alveolar walls, disruption of alveolar-capillary interface


What are the signs of a primary blast injury

Difficulty to complete a sentence in one breath, rapid/shallow respiration, poor chest wall expansion, dec breath sounds, wheezing/hemoptysis, cutaneous emphysema


What would the x-ray of someone suffering from over-pressurized lung from a primary blast injury look like?

"Butterfly" pattern


What can occur from a system air embolism from a primary blast injury?

Vascular obstruction, chest pain, focal neurological deficits, blindness, tongue blanching, cutis marmorata
Most related to sudden deaths in the first hour


What is the treatment for a pulmonary blast injury (primary)?

Spontaneous respiration preferred, supplemental O2, airway pressure must be more than vascular, lung isolation, unilateral intubation


What is a secondary blast injury?

Penetrating trauma caused by accelerations of shrapnel or blast debris


What are some characteristics of secondary blast injuries?

Possible small entrance wound and requires a detailed exam


What is a tertiary blast injury?

Displacement of body or structural collapse


Describe compartment syndrome.

Ecchymosis, tenderness, swelling, pain with passive motion, hypotension and shock, numbness and flaccid paralysis, may have loss of distal pulses


Describe crush syndrome.

Traumatic rhabdomyolysis, release intracellular toxins, potentially toxic when circulated through blood


How is crush syndrome treated?

Treat hyperkalemia, treat w/ iV glucose and insulin is cardiotoxic, beta-2 agonist, exchange resin. dialysis
Early, agressive treatment, IV normal saline, refer/perform fasciotomy if there is compartment syndrome


What is a quaternary blast injury?

All explosions related the burns and burn related injuries, environmental toxins, exacerbation of underlying illness


What is a quinary blast injury?

Purposeful addition of agents; chemical, biological, nuclear


What should you be aware of during triage in a blast injury?

Tympanic membrane rupture - they can't hear you
CT pts of head, thorax, abs should go to OR


What are the treatment ABCs?

Airway (burns and hemorrhage), breathing (pneumothorax), and circulation (possible tourniquet use)


What is the parkland formula?

Adults: 2-4 mLs LR x kg body weight X TBSA; first half in 8 hours rest over 16 hrs
Less than 10: 3-4 mls LR x kg body weight x TBSA


In treatment ABCs, there is a D which stands for...

Disability; needs neurological exam, consider psychological impact of disaster


In treatment ABCs, the E stands for...

Exposure, elimination, environmental control;
Allow for exam, hypothermia, warm IV fluids, removal from outside


What should be done for evac in an explosive event?

Benefit most from rapid, orderly scene, balance flow of pts