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PCBM M1T3 > Radiation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiation Deck (55)
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1
Q

What is the truth about radiation in the environment?

A

It is everywhere and you cannot avoid it

2
Q

Where does background radiation originate from?

A

Comic rays

Naturally occurring radiation in materials and living things

3
Q

What is ionizing radiation produced by?

A

Unstable atoms having excess energy, mass, or both

Trying to reach stability

4
Q

What are the 5 types of ionizing radiation?

A

Alpha, Beta, Gamma, X, and Neutron

5
Q

What is alpha radiation?

A

Heavy, very short-range particles, travels only a few inches in the air, not an external hazard
Can’t penetrate clothes and not really skin but bad inhaled, eaten or goes near open wounds
Cannot be identified with standard instruments

6
Q

What are examples of alpha radiation?

A

Radium, radon, uranium

7
Q

Describe beta radiation.

A

Ejected electron that can travel several feet in the air and can penetrate human skin to the germinal layer
High levels of beta-emitting contaminants
Harmful if deposited internally and needs special instruments to be detected

8
Q

What are examples of beta radiation?

A

Strontium-90, carbon-14, tritium and sulfer-35

9
Q

Describe gamma and X radiations.

A

Highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation and can travel many feet in the air and can travel on human tissue
Can penetrate most materials and is easily detectable by survey meters with sodium iodide detector probe

10
Q

What are some examples of gamma and X radiation?

A

Emission of alpha and beta rad in radioactive decay

Iodine-131, cesium-137, cobalt-60, radium-226

11
Q

Where could neutron radiation be found?

A

Nuclear power plants, high altitude flight and some industrial sources

12
Q

How is radiation measured in the US?

A

Gradation absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and exposure measured in rad, rem, or roentgen (R) and are all considered equal

13
Q

How is exposure measured?

A

Estimating curies (Ci)

14
Q

The greater the Ci the ____ the radioactivity and emitted radiation.

A

Greater

15
Q

What is the international system for radiation measurement?

A

Gray (Gy) and sievert (Sv) for absorbed dose and equivalent dose

16
Q

What does it mean to measure radioactivity?

A

The size or weight of a material does not indicate its activity level
Measured in curies per unit mass and depends on the half life

17
Q

What is the SI unit for radioactivity?

A

Becquerel (Bq)

18
Q

Radiation exposure should be limited—-

A

As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)

19
Q

What are the general rules of ionizing radiation injuries?

A
Damage increases 
proportionally to 
exposure
Effects may not appear 
for years following the 
exposure
Few show specificity
regarding radiation
etiology
20
Q

What are the most studied groups of those who suffer from radiation?

A

Atomic bomb survivors
Marshall islanders
Chernobyl survivors

21
Q

Describe characteristics of atomic bomb survivors?

A

Wide variety of malignancies
Overall incidence inc in proportion to rad dose
Breast cancer, leukemia, thyroid
Gene mutations, chromosome aberrations

22
Q

What occurs when a radiation injury effects blood forming tissues?

A

Highly radiosensitive and changes can occur within minutes after a 1 Sv dose
Profound depression in WBC and platelets in 3-5 weeks
10 Sv is lethal over minutes or days

23
Q

What can happen to the eye in ionizing radiation injuries?

A

Lens can obtain vision impairing cataracts in 2-3 Sv in a few minutes

24
Q

What happens to the reproductive organs in an ionizing radiation injury?

A
Sperm count depression in both tests (.15 Sv)
Permanent sterility (4 Sv)
25
Q

What occurs in carciongenesis?

A

Linked to radiation since roentgen discovery based on the radiation equipment

26
Q

What occurs in leukemia due to ionizing radiation injuries?

A

All major forms increase
following whole body or major hematopoietic system exposure
Increase appears 2-5 yrs
following exposure
Incidence of cases dose
dependant
Possible excess exposure to nuclear plants

27
Q

What occurs in breast cancer due to ionizing radiation injuries?

A

Dose-dependent inc
5-10 yrs following exposure and first age of exposure
May be no threshold effects

28
Q

What occurs in thyroid due to ionizing radiation injuries?

A

Malignancies seen in all major groups of exposed to radiation
Tumors primarily adeomas/carcinomas with low mortality and latent periods of 10-25 yrs
Females and younger ppl more incidence

29
Q

Describe radon.

A

Colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive gas formed from decay of radium
Found in confined areas like basements or in rocks and spring water

30
Q

What is the major health concern of radon?

A

Radon daughters which produce alpha particles and lodge in respiratory tract

31
Q

Is radon found in public water supply?

A

No

32
Q

What element contains radon and might cause lung cancer?

A

Uranium

33
Q

What does the EPA recommend as the standard for non-mining indoor radon levels?

A

4 pCi/L of air

34
Q

What is non-ionizing radiation

A

Energizes or excites molecules without breaking them apart

Series of energy waves composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling at the speed of light

35
Q

Where would non-ionizing radiation be found?

A

Power lines, electrical appliances, TVs, video displays, radar, microwaves

36
Q

What are the different types f non-ionizing radiation?

A
Extremely low frequency (ELF)
Electromagnetic fields (EMF)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Radiofrequency and Microwave rad (RF)
Ultraviolet (UV)
Ultrasound
37
Q

Describe extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation.

A

Produced at 60 Hz, produced by power lines and electrical wiring
Can effect Ca homeostasis, chromosome damage/RNA transcription, cell response to hormones and enzymes and NTs, cellular immune response and interacts with cancer cells

38
Q

Describe electromagnetic fields (EMF).

A

Include 50-60 Hz wave lengths

Associated with alternating currents in electric power generation, power lines

39
Q

Describe radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation (MW).

A

MW absorbed near the skin, RF maybe absorbed through body

Damage through heating

40
Q

What is the larges source of RF and MW?

A

Microwave ovens

41
Q

What are the health concerns of RF and MW?

A

Neurologic, behavioral, reproductive, teratogenic

42
Q

Describe infrared radiation (IR).

A

Skin and eye absorb infrared radiation (IR) as head

Furnaces, heat lamps, IR lasers

43
Q

What are the health related effects of IR?

A

Skin (sunburns), eye (opacities)

44
Q

Describe ultraviolet light (UV).

A

High photon energy range
No immediate symptoms of excessive exposure
Sun, black lights, welding arcs and UV lasers

45
Q

What are the health related effects of UV light?

A

Inc skin exposure and exposure to artificial light

Skin damage, melanotic skin cancer, non-melanotic skin cancer

46
Q

Describe video display terminals (VDTs).

A

Radiation non-issue

No harmful emissions

47
Q

L.A.S.E.R.S.

A

Light Amplification by Simulated Emissions of Radiation

48
Q

Describe lasers.

A

Produce coherent, tightly focused beams of x-ray, UV, visible, or IR rad
Emit optical radiations, eye and skin hazard

49
Q

What are the health effects of lasers in medical use?

A

Type, power output, viewing angle, length of exposure

50
Q

What are some adverse heath effects of lasers?

A

Skin - erythema, blistering, incineration
Respiratory tract effects due to airborne contaminates produced
Eye - epthelial stripping, granuales, haze, opacities, depends on exposure type, dependent on whether exposure is infrared, UV, or visible

51
Q

Class I laser

A

No risk even if viewed directly

52
Q

Class II laser

A

No injury if direct beam is viewed for 0.25 sec or less; low risk

53
Q

Class IIA laser

A

Output not intended to be viewed; exposure must not exceed class I radiation for 1,000 sec

54
Q

Class III laser

A

Can produce eye injury if beam is viewed even momentarily; moderate risk
Medical surveillance required

55
Q

Class IV laser

A

Even diffuse reflection can produce eye damage; can injure skin and may pose fire hazard
Medical surveillance required