Flashcards in Radiation Deck (55)
What is the truth about radiation in the environment?
It is everywhere and you cannot avoid it
Where does background radiation originate from?
Naturally occurring radiation in materials and living things
What is ionizing radiation produced by?
Unstable atoms having excess energy, mass, or both
Trying to reach stability
What are the 5 types of ionizing radiation?
Alpha, Beta, Gamma, X, and Neutron
What is alpha radiation?
Heavy, very short-range particles, travels only a few inches in the air, not an external hazard
Can't penetrate clothes and not really skin but bad inhaled, eaten or goes near open wounds
Cannot be identified with standard instruments
What are examples of alpha radiation?
Radium, radon, uranium
Describe beta radiation.
Ejected electron that can travel several feet in the air and can penetrate human skin to the germinal layer
High levels of beta-emitting contaminants
Harmful if deposited internally and needs special instruments to be detected
What are examples of beta radiation?
Strontium-90, carbon-14, tritium and sulfer-35
Describe gamma and X radiations.
Highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation and can travel many feet in the air and can travel on human tissue
Can penetrate most materials and is easily detectable by survey meters with sodium iodide detector probe
What are some examples of gamma and X radiation?
Emission of alpha and beta rad in radioactive decay
Iodine-131, cesium-137, cobalt-60, radium-226
Where could neutron radiation be found?
Nuclear power plants, high altitude flight and some industrial sources
How is radiation measured in the US?
Gradation absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and exposure measured in rad, rem, or roentgen (R) and are all considered equal
How is exposure measured?
Estimating curies (Ci)
The greater the Ci the ____ the radioactivity and emitted radiation.
What is the international system for radiation measurement?
Gray (Gy) and sievert (Sv) for absorbed dose and equivalent dose
What does it mean to measure radioactivity?
The size or weight of a material does not indicate its activity level
Measured in curies per unit mass and depends on the half life
What is the SI unit for radioactivity?
Radiation exposure should be limited----
As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)
What are the general rules of ionizing radiation injuries?
Effects may not appear
for years following the
Few show specificity
What are the most studied groups of those who suffer from radiation?
Atomic bomb survivors
Describe characteristics of atomic bomb survivors?
Wide variety of malignancies
Overall incidence inc in proportion to rad dose
Breast cancer, leukemia, thyroid
Gene mutations, chromosome aberrations
What occurs when a radiation injury effects blood forming tissues?
Highly radiosensitive and changes can occur within minutes after a 1 Sv dose
Profound depression in WBC and platelets in 3-5 weeks
10 Sv is lethal over minutes or days
What can happen to the eye in ionizing radiation injuries?
Lens can obtain vision impairing cataracts in 2-3 Sv in a few minutes
What happens to the reproductive organs in an ionizing radiation injury?
Sperm count depression in both tests (.15 Sv)
Permanent sterility (4 Sv)
What occurs in carciongenesis?
Linked to radiation since roentgen discovery based on the radiation equipment
What occurs in leukemia due to ionizing radiation injuries?
All major forms increase
following whole body or major hematopoietic system exposure
Increase appears 2-5 yrs
Incidence of cases dose
Possible excess exposure to nuclear plants
What occurs in breast cancer due to ionizing radiation injuries?
5-10 yrs following exposure and first age of exposure
May be no threshold effects
What occurs in thyroid due to ionizing radiation injuries?
Malignancies seen in all major groups of exposed to radiation
Tumors primarily adeomas/carcinomas with low mortality and latent periods of 10-25 yrs
Females and younger ppl more incidence
Colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive gas formed from decay of radium
Found in confined areas like basements or in rocks and spring water