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Flashcards in Disaster Detect Deck (29)
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1
Q

What are some chemical agent clues?

A

Rapid symptom onset, multiple victims, EMTs effected, disseminated device used, animal or insect die off

2
Q

Describe the choking agent Phosgene.

A

Smells like newly cut hair

Coughing, choking, vomiting

3
Q

Describe the choking agent Chlorine.

A

Swelling like swimming pools

Coughing, choking, vomiting

4
Q

Describe blistering agent of Mustard.

A

Smells like garlic, symptom onset delayed

Tearing, eye itching, running nose, cough, blistering

5
Q

Describe the blister agent of Lewisite.

A

Smells like geraniums, immediate onset

Tearing, eye itching, running nose, cough, painful blisters

6
Q

Describe blood agent of Cyanide gas.

A

Smells like bitter almonds, rapid onset

Normal skin color, gasping for air, shock

7
Q

What are the nerve agents?

A

Tabun, sarin, soman, VX

8
Q

What are the symptoms of nerve agents?

A

Rapid to 48 hr onset, pinpoint pupils, salivation, runny nose, shortness of breath, chest tightness, nausea, muscle twitch, seizures, coma, death

9
Q

What are the characteristics of a biological agent?

A

May not have an scene, hard to detect, beware of multiple people with similar complaints in “healthy” population

10
Q

Describe bacillus anthracis as a biological agent.

A

Spore forming, sheeps and cattle, 2-60 day incubation

Inhalation, cutaneous, GI

11
Q

What is the presentation and prognosis of cutaneous anthrax ?

A

Local edema, itchy bump to blister, painless, depressed eschar
Untreated = 20% dead
Treated = 0% dead

12
Q

What is the presentation for inhalation anthrax?

A

Non-specific “flu-like” symptoms to abrupt respiratory failure
Widened mediastinum and/or pleural effusions on chest rad

13
Q

How is anthrax diagnosed?

A

Cutaneous - clinical, culture beneath eschar

Inhalation - blood culture, chest rad

14
Q

What are the features of yersina pestis (plague)?

A

10 natural cases a year
Usually lymph node/blood infection
Pneumonic plague for bioterrorists

15
Q

What is the clinical presentation for the plague?

A

Flea bite - bubonic
Inhalation - pneumonic
Incubates for 2-3 days, high fever, chills, headache, coughing blood, toxic look

16
Q

How is the plague diagnosed?

A

Staining of sputum (gram neg), culutres

17
Q

What is the route of infection for tularemia (Francisella tularensis) and the presentation?

A

Tick and fly bites, infected animals and inhale

Incubation 1 - 21 days, acute febrile illness, pneumonia, conjunctivitis or skin ulcers, swollen lymph nodes

18
Q

How is tularemia diagnosed?

A

Culture of blood and sputum (neg coccobaccillus)

19
Q

What are the features of small pox?

A

7-17 day incubation, prodrome, 2-3 day rash, 8-10 rash with pustules then scabs

20
Q

Describe Viral hemorrhagic fever?

A

Variants (Ebola, Marbug, Lassa, Dengue)
Naturally occurring - mircovascular damage
Incubation 2-21 days, non-specific prodrome, flushing in face and chest, petechiae
Shock and generalized mucous membrane hemorrhage

21
Q

How is viral hemorrhagic fever diagnosed?

A

Clinical presentation, high level index of suspicion

If pt thought to present with VHF report before results

22
Q

Describe SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)?

A

Coronavirus, world-wide in 2003
Incubation 2-7 days (up to 10), presents flu-like prodrome, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms on day 3-7
Development of pneumonia

23
Q

Describe Ricin.

A

Castor beans, exposed bu injection, inhalation ingestion
Inhalation - fever, cough, chest pain, pulmonary edema
Ingestion, nausea, vomit, diarrhea, GI hemorrhage

24
Q

What are the features of boutlinum toxin?

A

Clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin, inhale or ingestion
Presents 24-36 hrs after ingestion
Blurred and double vision, slurred speech, swallow issues, descending paralysis, respiratory failure

25
Q

How is botulism diagnosed?

A

Based on presentation, toxin assay of blood

26
Q

S.A.F.E.T.Y.

A

Skin rash with fever (smallpox)
Acute pulmonary syndrome (anthrax/plague)
Flue like syndrome (Tularemia/SARS)
Excessive bleeding (Viral hemorrhagic fever)
Toxin effect (Botulism)
Your personal/community safety

27
Q

What is step one of surveillance?

A

Ongoing monitoring of your environment and your patient population for unusual events

28
Q

What is step two of surveillance?

A

Communication of any worrisome observation to a 911 operator or appropriate health department contact

29
Q

Describe the signs and symptoms of a radiological event.

A

Delayed onset, early symptoms predicts worse outcome, nausea, vomit, burns