Immunization and Vaccinations Flashcards Preview

PCBM M1T3 > Immunization and Vaccinations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunization and Vaccinations Deck (58):
1

What types of immunity are there?

Self vs non-self
Protection from infectious disease
Indicated by the presence of antibody
Specific to a single organisms

2

Antigen

A liven or inactivated substance capable of producing an immune response

3

Antibody

Protein molecule (immunoglobulin) produced by B lymphocytes to help eliminate an antigen

4

Passive immunity

Transfer of antibody produced by one human or other animal to another
Temporary protection

5

What are the most important sources in infancy of passive immunity?

Transplacental transfer and breastfeeding

6

What are some sources of passive immunity?

All blood or blood products
Homologous pooled human antibody (immune globulin)
Homologous human hyperimmune globulin
Heterologous hyperimmune serum (antitoxin)

7

Monoclonal antibody

Derived from a single type of antibody-producing cells (B cells)

8

What are monoclonal antibodies used for?

Used for diagnosis and therapy of certain cancers, autoimmine, and infectious disease

9

Active immunity

Produced by vaccine
Immunity and immunologic memory similar to natural infection (without disease risk)

10

1st principle of vaccination

The more similar a vaccine is to the disease-causing form of the organism , the better the immune response to the vaccine

11

What are some considerations when developing a new vaccine?

Common disease?
Safe and effective production of a vaccine?
Side effects worse than disease?

12

How long does preclinical testing for a new vaccine last?

2 - 4 years

13

What must the volunteers for a new vaccine agree to?

Vaccine administration, follow-ups for eval and physical testing, provide blood samples

14

How long to clinical trials for vaccinations last?

5 - 7 years

15

What is phase 1 for vaccine clinical trials?

Safety - candidate vax tested in small numbers to healthy adults to assess short term and adverse effects and correct dose

16

What is phase 2 for vax clinical trials?

Multiple stages of several hundred appropriate-age volunteers in multiple centers which assess expanded safety parameters and provocation of an immune response

17

What is phase 3 for vax clinical trials?

Thousands required to confirm degree of immune response/side effects, eval of vax in general population and potential value and use of the vaccine for general public health practice

18

What is phase 4 for vax clinical trials?

Monitoring
Detect rare/unexpected reactions, measure program effects

19

What is a live attenuated vaccine?

Weakened form of the wild virus or bacterium
Generally works in one dose (exclude oral)

20

What must a vax do to be considered live attenuated?

Must replicate to be effective, produce immune response similar to natural infection

21

What are some complications of a live attenuated vax?

Severe rxns, interference from antibodies
Vax is fragile - stored and handled carefully

22

Examples of live attenuated viral vax

Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella/zoster, yellow fever, rotavirus, intranasal influenza, rotavirus, vaccinia

23

Examples of live attenuated bacterial vax

BCG, oral typhoid

24

What parts may be used (fractional) can be used in an inactivated vax?

Protein-base: toxiod, sub-unit
Polysaccharide-based: pure, conjugate

25

Characteristics of inactivated vax

No replication, less interference by antibodies, 3 -5 doses, humoral response mostly, antibody titer may dimish

26

Examples of inactivated whole-cell vax

polio, hepatitis A, rabies, influenza

27

What does a fractional subunit vax contain?

Minimal amounts of nonvirus antigens derived from the culture medium
Less likely to cause adverse reaction than whole version

28

Examples of fractional inactivated vax

Hepatitis B
Influenza
Pertussis (acellular)
Human papillomavirus
Anthrax

29

What does a fractional toxoid vax contain?

Treated to destroy vax toxic properties, but retain the capacity to stimulate production of antitoxins

30

Examples of fractional toxoid vax

Diphtheria
Tetanus

31

What is a polysaccharide vax?

Extracted and purified form of the bacterial outer polysaccharide coat

32

What are the characteristics of the polysac vax?

Induce formation of circulating antibodies, promote phagocytosis, remove immune system macs
No booster but doesn't always work for kids younger than 2

33

Examples of pure polysac vax

Pneumococcal
Meningoccal
Salmonella Typhi (4)

34

What are conjugated polysac vax?

Polysacs linked to purified protein carriers
Involve helper T cells in the polysac antigen response

35

Examples of conjugated polysac vax

Tetanus toxoid
Diphtheria toxoid
H. influenzae B
Some forms of Pneumococcal and Meningococcal

36

What are the general rules of vaccination?

Inactivated vax are generally not affected by circulating antibody to the antigen
Live attenuated vax may be affected by circulating antibody to the antigen

37

What is the second principle of vaccination?

All vax can be administered at the same visit as all other vax (generally)

38

When should administration of vax be separated?

2 live parenteral vax

39

What are the third prinicples of vax?

Increase the interval between doses of multidose vax does not diminish the effectiveness of the vax
Decreasing the interval between doses of a mutlidose vax may interfere with antibody response and protection

40

When are minimum intervals and ages used for vax?

When a pt is behind schedule on vax series
Vax doses should not be administered at intervals less than the minimum or earlier than minimum age

41

Adverse rxn

Extraneous effect caused by vax
Side effect

42

Adverse event

Any event following vax, may be coincidental or true rxn

43

Local adverse rxn

Pain, swelling, redness at injection site
Common with inactivated vax
Mild, self-limiting

44

System adverse rxn

Fever, malaise, headache, nonspecific
Maybe unrelated to vax

45

Live attenuated vax adverse rxn

Must replicate for immunity so there may be symptoms that occur after incubation period (7-21 days)

46

Allergic adverse rxn

Dude to vax or vax component, rare, risk minimized by screening

47

Contraindication

Condition in a recipient that greatly inc the chance of a serious adverse rxn or effect the ability of the vax to produce immunity

48

What are the permanent contraindications for vax?

Severe allergic rxn to vax component after a dose
Encephalopathy (pertussis)

49

Should live vax be used in pregnant women?

No

50

In pregger the HPV vax should be....

Deferred

51

What diseases could cause immunosuppresion?

Congenital immunodeficiency
Leukemia or lymphoma
Malignancy

52

What chemotherapies could cause immunosupression?

Alkylating agents
Antimetabolities
Radiation

53

If a person has isolated B-cell deficiency they can have what vax?

Varicella

54

Which type of vax is safe for an immunosupressed person?

Inactivated vax but possible dec in response

55

Which vax can you give to an asymptomatic HIV pt?

Varicella, MMR, maybe yellow fever

56

Does acute illness mean a vax can't be used?

No, it doesn't even reduce efficacy but should be delayed until illness is improved

57

What is a adjuvant?

Pathogens, or parts of one, used to inc vax effectiveness

58

Why are preservatives used in vax?

The prevent the growth of bacteria or fungi
Always used in multidose vax