A coloring matter which can be applied to an object.
Used to duplicate the colors of the spectrum.
- Mixtures of these colors will produce intermediary hues not seen in the spectrum.
- Absorption of light-rays through admixture
Imperfections of Pigments
- Fewer in number than of the colors in nature.
- Colors of certain objects cannot always be duplicated: stones, natural wood, skin.
- Pigments will ____ with light and chemicals.
- Example: Sunlight, air, exhaust, sulphur
Many pigments are not pure colors.
- Example: Pigments may contain so much red that the other colors present are not identifiable until after the mixture.
Colors may vary from purchase to purchase.
- Examples: paint, wallpaper, tile
- Opposite of light
- Pigments absorb light rays when mixed
- Result in gray or black
- Result in gray or black
Absorption of Light-Rays Through Admixture
Measurements (Dimensions) of Color
- Name of a chromatic color
- Qualifies it as to its warmth or coolness
The lightness or darkness of the color
The pureness or dullness (grayness) of a color.
Class of Hues
Three hues which can be combined to make all other hues.
The illustrative symbol when drawing primary hues on a color wheel:
An equal mixture of two primary hues.
Illustrative symbol of secondary hues when drawing them on the color wheel:
It is the primary and secondary hues.
- "Standard color wheel"
- Red, yellow, blue, orange, green, purple.
Standard Pigmentary Hues
Mixture of a primary and adjacent secondary hue.
- Appearance of each mixture: Midway between the primary and secondary hue.
Illustration of intermediate mixtures on the color wheel:
Use the Primary Color First in Identifying
An unequal mixture of opposite (complimentary) hues.
- Results in brown and slates
- Grayed hues (called tones)
- Names of colors: White, black, gray.
- Decorative netural colors- Metallic colors of silver and gold.
The amount of hues on the color wheel.
- When seen together- present the most vivid contrast.
- When mixed equally- cancel each other out.
- Water- Blue
- Grass- Green
- Fire- Orange
- Sun- Yellow
Association From Nature (Warm and cool hues)
Red, yellow, orange or any intermediate hue in which they predominate.
- Orange is the most
Names of Warm Hues
Have longer wavelengths.
Size and distance illustrations with warm hues.
Make Objects Seem to Advance
Active or cheerful.
Psychological Associations of Warm Hues
Relfects heat waves.
Heat- Warm Hues
Blue, green, purple, or any intermediate hue in which they predominate.
Names of Cool Hues
Have shorter wavelengths.
Make objects seem to recede.
The size and distance illustrations of cool hues
Quiet, peaceful, depressing.
Psychological Associations- Cool Hues
Heat- Cool Hues
The dividing line of the color wheel into warm and cool groups:
Y/YG + RP/P (12:30 + 6:30)
Afford the greatest visual contrast.
Comparison of Opposites - Warm and Cool
Lightness or darkness of the hue.
- Value Cones
Changing the Value of any Hue
Nine levels between white and black formed by the mixture of black and white in varying proportions.
The Gray Scale
- Most- high levels (7,8,9) (light grays)
- Least- Low levels (1,2,3) (dark grays)
Reflectance Characteristics (Gray Scale)
Mix various amounts of either white or black to the hue.
Hue mixed with progressive quantities of white.
Weakens the brillance but raises the value.
Effect of Tint on the Hue
Hue mixed with progressive quantities of black.
Weakens the brillance but lowers the value.
Effect of Shade on the Hue
- Red- pink, rose, cherry, coral
- Yellow- Lemon, cream, ivory
- Blue- Sky, baby, robins egg
- Orange- Salmon, amber, peach
- Green- Apple, pea, lime
- Purple- Lavender, orchid
Illustration of Tint
- Red- Burgundy, cordovan, maroon
- Yellow- Mustard
- Blue- Navy, royal, midnight
- Orange- Burnt-orange, tobacco, copper
- Green- Jade-green, forest, hunter
- Purple- Plum, grape, prune
Illustration of Shade
- Tint cone
- Shade cone
- Axis of the adjoined cones
Color wheel forms the lip, the apex is white, as each hue rises, the value changes to lighter tints.
The cone is inverted, the apex is black, as each hue descends it becomes darker.
This is the gray scale.
- Class of color betwen the axis and the periphery of either cone- Tertiary colors (tone)
Axis of the Adjoined Cones
Pureness or dullness (grayness) of hue.
Grayed hue including brown.
Description of Tone
Becomes pleasant with subdued brillance.
Effect of Reduced Purity (Tone)
- Admixture of the hue with the complement
- Admixture of the hue with a gray pigment (direct method)
Methods of Reducing Purity (Intensity)
Mixture of two hues which make gray.
Opposites on the color wheel.
Location of Complements
Symbol used to signify complementary colors
Admixing complements in equal amounts makes:
Admixture of complements with an excess of the warm hue makes:
Admixture of complements with an excess of the cool hue:
Any two hues placed side by side influence the appearance of each other.
If non-complements are juxtaposed, they ____ each other.
If complements are juxtaposed, they appear more ____.
Intensify the brilliance of each other.
Effect of Pure (Complementary) Hues on Each Other
Reduce the brilliance of each other.
Effect of Grayed (complementary) Hues on Each Other