The mathmatical relationship of the size of the features to each other and/or to the head.
Perfect facial proportions useful in the study of the face and features.
- Few people exhibit this
Canon of Beauty
For the restorative artist, these proportions:
- Serve as the basis for comparison
- Are used as a norm so that differences may be more readily noted.
Use of The Canon of Beauty
Is oval in outline with the upper portion a little wider than the lower.
This is two thirds the length of the head.
The Greatest Width of The Head
This is approximately seven and a half head heights.
- Tall adults may be eight head lengths in height.
The Average Adult Height
Applies to a vertical measurement.
Applies to a horizontal measurement.
The following lengths are equal (top half):
- From the normal hairline to the line of the eyebrows.
- From the line of the eyebrows to the base of the nose.
- From the base of the nose to the base of the chin.
- The length of the ear.
- From the outer corner of the eyelids to the ear passage.
In a Profile View
In a profile view, the top of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the __________.
In a profile view, the bottom of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the ___________.
Base of the Nose
In this view, these lengths are also equal (bottom half):
- From the base of the nose to the line of closure of the lips.
- From the line of closure of the lips to the top of the chin.
- From the top to the bottom of the chin.
In a profile view
In a profile view, the line of closure of the lips lies halfway between the base of the nose and the top of the ______.
In a frontal view, the eyes are located half way between the vertex of the cranium and the __________.
Base of the Chin
In a frontal view, the face is _______ wide. (At the zygomatic arches).
In a frontal view, the distance betwen the eyes is ______________ wide.
In a frontal view, the nose is ______ wide.
In a frontal view, the mouth is _______ wide.
In addition to the classic proportions:
- From earpassage to earpassage
- From the eyebrow to the base of the chin.
- From the tip of the nose to the earpassage.
- From the hairline to the base of the nose.
Any great variation from th canon of beauty.
- Extensive violation of the rules of harmonious proportions.
- Deformity of the features.
- Any abnormality
Canon of Ugliness
This is what the restorative artist must be.
- He is not to improve on nature.
- If a feature is irregular in size and shape, the restoration should reflect that irregularity.
Faithful to The Subject
- Both eyes may not be the same width
- One side of the mouth may be wider than the other
- One side of the nose may be wider than the other
- One cheek may be more prominent than the other
- The ears exhibit the greatest differences in position, form, and size.
Most People are Asymmetrical
- Superior integumentary lip
4 Surfaces that Exhibit Similarity of Bilateral Curvature
The face is divided eight times, which create six special zones.
- Can be used as a guide during restorative procedures.
Divide the face into two equal halves by drawing a line at the:
- Vertex (top) of the cranium
- The line of eye closure
- Base of the chin
1st Step (Horizontal)
Divide the face into three equal parts by drawing lines through:
- Base of the nose
- Base of the chin
2nd Step (Horizontal)
Divide the area between the base of the nose and the base of the chin into three equal parts by drawing lines through:
- Base of nose
- Line of lip closure
- Top of chin
- Base of chin
3rd Step (Horizontal)
Used to determine the width of head features by using the width of the eye as a standard of measurement.
- Draw a line down the medial corner of each eye. This line will extend to the corner of the wing of the nose.
- Extend a line down from the lateral corner of each eye. This line will extend to the sides of the face.
- Extend a line down from the middle of the eye. This line will extend to the corner of the mouth
Vertical Line measurement Steps
The widest part is measured by the distance between the two parietal eminences.
- The face is three noses long.
- The length of the nose is equal to the length of the ear.
- The width of the nose at the wings is equal to the width of an eye.
- The face is five eyes wide from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch.
- The distance between the eyes is equal to the width of one eye.
- The mouth is two eyes wide.
- The superior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the eyebrows.
- The inferior border of hte ear is on the same horizontal plane as the base of the nose.
- The face is three ears long.
When using the thumb and the index finger as a unit of measure, hold the thumb parallel to the index finger. The distance from the tip of the thumb tp the tip of the finger is equal to the:
- Length of the ear
- Length of the nose
- The normal hairline to the root of the nose
- The base of the nose to the bottom of the chin
Thumb and Index finger (Sanders 1980)